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A new genus of treeshrew and other micromammals from the middle Miocene hominoid locality of Ramnagar, Udhampur District, Jammu & Kashmir, India

Citation

Sehgal, Ramesh et al. (2022), A new genus of treeshrew and other micromammals from the middle Miocene hominoid locality of Ramnagar, Udhampur District, Jammu & Kashmir, India, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.8kprr4xqk

Abstract

The fossil record of treeshrews, hedgehogs, and other micromammals from the Lower Siwaliks of India is sparse. Here, we report on a new genus and species of fossil treeshrew, specimens of the hedgehog Galerix, and other micromammals from the middle Miocene (Lower Siwalik) deposits surrounding Ramnagar (Udhampur District, Jammu & Kashmir), at a fossil locality known as Dehari. The treeshrew from Dehari (Sivatupaia ramnagarensis gen. nov. et sp. nov.) currently represents the oldest record of fossil tupaiids in the Siwaliks, extending their time range by ~2.5-4.0 million years in the region. Dietary analyses suggest that the new tupaiid was likely adapted for a less mechanically challenging or more frugivorous diet compared to other extant and fossil tupaiids. The occurrence of Galerix has only been recently documented from the Indian Siwaliks and the Dehari specimens help establish the likely presence of a relatively large Siwalik Galerix species in the Ramnagar region. In addition to the new treeshrew and hedgehogs, new specimens of the rodents Kanisamys indicus, Sayimys sivalensis, and Murinae indet. from Dehari help confirm age estimates for the Ramnagar region equivalent to the Chinji Formation in Pakistan, most likely corresponding to the middle to upper part of the Chinji Formation.

Usage Notes

SI Dataset 1. Generalized Procrustes Analysis data of treeshrews.

SI Figure S1. Plot of M2 shape vs. M2 size in G. rutlandae (Black dots), G. wesselsae (Blue squares), Galerix sp. indet. from Potwar locality Y709 (Purple cross), and Galerix sp. indet. from Kulwanta locality K2, Ramnagar, India (Red star).

SI Table S1. List of specimens included in the analyses and results of the topographic analysis for Dirichlet normal energy (DNE), three-dimensional orientation patch count rotated (3D-OPCR), and relief index (RFI).

SI Table S2. Comparative dental measurements in mm of Galerix rutlandae and Galerix wesselsae M2s from Pakistan and India.

SI Table S3. Comparative dental measurements (mm) of WIMF/A 4696, WIMF/A 4693, and WIMF/A 4692 and previously described Lower Siwalik fossil murines.

Funding

Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology

Leakey Foundation

National Science Foundation