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Factors affecting perception of child weight

Citation

Woods, Tanna (2021), Factors affecting perception of child weight, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.8pk0p2nnc

Abstract

Background

Parental misperception and underestimation of their child’s weight are documented in studies. Demographic factors like age and gender have been linked to misclassification. However, modifiable factors that could potentially frame future intervention and prevention strategies have not been explored. This study aimed to assess factors that could predict parental misclassification of their preschool child’s weight.

Methods

This was a cross-sectional study with 198 parents and their 2- to 5-year-old children who attended standalone preschools or childcare centers with preschools. Parents completed a questionnaire that asked about demographic features, personal and family health, and the assessment of their child’s weight using the three most frequently utilized measures. Logistic regression was conducted to assess the association between parental factors and child weight classification status. Instruments included the Parental Self-Efficacy for Promoting Healthy Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviors in Children Scale (PSEPAD), the Obesity Risk Scale (ORK-10), and the Adolescent Obesity Risk Scale (AORK). Analyses included frequencies, chi-square tests, Kappa coefficients, and logistic regressions.

Results

Parents were least accurate (35.9%) identifying child weight when selecting a picture (κ =-.028, p = .42). The pictorial and Likert method (κ = -.032, p = .37) showed parental agreement with child weight was not significantly better than chance. Statistically, a significant agreement was found in the weight-reporting method (κ = .21). Two of the three HBM-related measures were significantly related to accurate classification. Logistic regression showed child sex, PSEPAD scores, and ORK-10 scores were statistically significant predictors in the Likert method. The model had no statistical significance for the pictorial or weight-reporting method.

Conclusion

Results indicate parents support intervening if aware of child weight problems. However, parents do not accurately recognize healthy versus unhealthy weights and report that health providers are not informing them of weight deviations. Further, important relationships between the HBM variables were identified. Results show barriers (self-efficacy) mediate the impact of perceived severity (knowledge) regarding the parental ability to assess child weight accurately. These relationships and incorporation of the HBM principles of barriers and severity into prevention/intervention strategies need further exploration.

Methods

This was a cross-sectional study with 198 parents and their 2- to 5-year-old children who attended standalone preschools or childcare centers with preschools. Parents completed a questionnaire that asked about demographic features, personal and family health, and the assessment of their child’s weight using the three most frequently utilized measures.  Logistic regression was conducted to assess the association between parental factors and child weight classification status. Instruments included the Parental Self-Efficacy for Promoting Healthy Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviors in Children Scale (PSEPAD), the Obesity Risk Scale (ORK-10), and the Adolescent Obesity Risk Scale (AORK). Analyses included frequencies, chi-square tests, Kappa coefficients, and logistic regressions.

Usage Notes

Early Childhood and Family Health Questionnaire

Coding Guide

 

QUESTION

FIELD

DESCRIPTION

TYPE

COLUMNS

EXPECTED RANGE

CODES

N/A

ID

Assigned ID Number

Text

NA

####

A-Z and Number

(i.e. A001)

N/A

CHCLASS

Child Classification based on actual weight/height

Categorical

#

1-4

1=Underweight

2=Health weight

3=Overweight

4=Obese

 

4

CHID

Unique child identifier

Text

NA

###

NA

 

LBCLASS

Is parental classification in pounds correct or incorrect?

Categorical

#

1-2

0=Incorrect

1=Correct

7

PICTURE

Picture that represents child

Categorical

##

1-7

1= Very underweight

2= Underweight

3= Slightly underweight

4=Healthy weight

5= Slightly overweight

6= Overweight

7= Obese

 

PICLASS

 

 

Is parental picture selection correct or incorrect

Categorical

##

1

0=Incorrect

1=Correct

 

PTYPE

 

 

 

Classification of parent selection versus actual child weight

Categorical

#

1-3

1= Correct

2 = Underestimation

3 = Overestimation

 

PICCAT

 

 

Categorization of picture selection 1-4. Code picture 1-2 as underweight (1). 3-4 as healthy weight (2). 5-6 as overweight (3), and 7 as obese (4)

Categorical

#

1-4

1 = Underweight

2 = Healthy weight

3 = Overweight

4 = Obese

10

CBMI

Child’s BMI

Continuous

##

0-32

NA

 

PERCENT

Percentile of child weight

Continuous

##

0-99

NA

 

CBMIC

 

 

 

 

Child’s BMI by age category

Categorical

#

1-4

1=Underweight

2=Health weight

3=Overweight

4=Obese

 

Varies by age.

11

CLIKE

 

 

 

 

Description of child weight by Likert scale

Categorical

#

1-5

1= Very Underweight

2= Underweight

3= Healthy weight

4= Overweight

5= Obese

 

 

LIKCLASS

 

 

Is description of child weight by Likert accurate?

Categorical

#

1-2

0=Incorrect

1=Correct

 

LIKTYPE

 

 

 

Classification of parent selection versus actual child weight.

Categorical

#

1-3

1 = Correct

2 = Underestimation

3 = Overestimation

 

LIKCAT

 

 

Categorization of Likert on scale. Code Likert to 1-2 as underweight (1), 3 as healthy weight (2), 4 as overweight (3), and 5 as obese (4)

Categorical

#

1-4

1 = Underweight

2 = Healthy weight

3 = Overweight

4 = Obese

12

CONCERN

 

 

 

 

Concern of child overweight in future

Ordinal

#

1-5

1= Unconcerned

2= A little concerned

3= Concerned

4= Fairly concerned

5= Very concerned

13

NCONCERN

 

 

 

Concern of child in nation being overweight

Ordinal

#

1-5

1= Unconcerned

2= A little concerned

3= Concerned

4= Fairly concerned

5= Very concerned

20

HCPW

 

 

 

Health care provider mentioned child overweight

Binary

#

0-1

0 = No

1 = Yes

21

CHCPOW

If told overweight, how concerned would be?

 

Binary

#

1-5

1= Not at all concerned

2=Slightly concerned

3=Somewhat concerned

4= Moderately concerned

5= Extremely concerned

 

22

CHCPO

 

 

 

 

 

If told obese, how concerned would be?

 

 

Ordinal

#

1-5

1= Not at all concerned

2=Slightly concerned

3=Somewhat concerned

4= Moderately concerned

5= Extremely concerned

 

23

LTDS

 

 

 

 

Likelihood to do something about it

Ordinal

#

1-5

1=Not likely

2=Slightly likely

3=Somewhat likely

4=Moderately likely

5=Extremely likely

24

CONTROL

 

 

 

Control overweight weight of 2-5-year-old

Ordinal

#

1-5

1=No control

2= Slight control

3=Some control

4=Moderate control

5=Extreme control

 

PBMIC

 

 

 

 

 

Adult BMI Category

Categorical

#

1-4

1= Below 18.5 (Underweight)

2= 18.5-24.9 (Normal or Healthy Weight)

3 = 25-29.9 (Overweight)

4 = 30.0 and Above (Obese)

34

PLIKE

 

 

 

Describe own weight by Likert scale

Categorical

#

1-4

1=Underweight

2=Healthy weight

3=Overweight

4=Obese

 

PRIGHT

 

 

 

Is parental description of weight by Likert scale accurate?

Categorical

#

1-2

0=Incorrect

1=Correct

35

NDX

 

 

Number of adult diagnoses selected

Numerical

#

0-5

NA

 

OWEX

 

 

Exposure to overweight in family

Binary

#

0-1

0=No

1=Yes

 

 

OEX

Exposure to obesity in family

Binary

#

0-1

0=No

1=Yes

 

Knowledge scale

ORKT

Total of ORK-10 score on knowledge scale

Numerical

##

0-10

NA

Knowledge scale 2

AORK

Total score of 10 on AORK knowledge scale

Ordinal

##

0-10

NA

PSE

PSET

Total parental self-efficacy score

Ordinal

###

0-160

NA

 

Funding

2018 Sigma/Chamberlain College of Nursing Education Research Grant, Award: 14306

2018 Sigma/Chamberlain College of Nursing Education Research Grant, Award: 14306