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An expanded character set for evaluating the phylogenetic position of Homo floresiensis

Cite this dataset

Wood, Todd (2021). An expanded character set for evaluating the phylogenetic position of Homo floresiensis [Dataset]. Dryad.


The hominin character matrix of Dembo et al. (2016) has been updated with additional character states for Ar. ramidus, Au. anamensis, H. antecessor, and H. floresiensis.  These characters were published and described in Wood (2020).


From Mongle et al. (2019), I added 48 character states from Table 4 for Ardipithecus ramidus, with the following exceptions:

  • Characters missing from Dembo: SG53, CW2, CW22, CW40, CW48, KRJ6, KRJ25
  • Characters already coded: KRJ11, SG25
  • In addition, the description of SG42 matches that of Dembo235, but the character state does not match at all.  SG42 was omitted from this modified dataset.

From Haile-Selassie et al. (2019), I added 50 character states for Australopithecus anamensis.  I scored character 87, zygomaticoalveolar crest, as “curved” for Homo antecessor, based on Trafi et al. (2018).  In addition, I added 84 character states for Homo floresiensis based on Argue et al (2017) (29 characters) and my own study of published anatomical descriptions and photographs of fossils (55 characters).   All modified character states for H. floresiensis are documented below.

Finally, the character states are supplied in two forms.  The polarized set follows the original character state codings from Dembo et al. (2016), and for the unpolarized set, all characters were recoded so that character state zero referred exclusively to the absence of a character state.


Argue, Debbie, Colin P. Groves, Michael S.Y. Lee, and William L. Jungers.  2017.  “The affinities of Homo floresiensis based on phylogenetic analyses of cranial, dental, and postcranial characters.”  Journal of Human Evolution 107: 107-133.

Baab, Karen L., Peter Brown, Dean Falk, Joan T. Richtsmeier, Charles F. Hildebolt, Kirk Smith, and William Jungers.  2016.  “A critical evaluation of the Down Syndrome diagnosis for LB1, type specimen of Homo floresiensis.”  PLoS ONE 11 (6): e0155731.

Brown, P., T. Sutikna, M.J. Morwood, R.P. Soejono, Jatmiko, E. Wayhu Saptomo, and Rokus Awe Due.  2004.  “A new small-bodied hominin from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia.”  Nature 431:1055-1061.

Brown, Peter and Tomoko Maeda.  2009.  Liang Bua Homo floresiensis mandibles and mandibular teeth: a contribution to the comparative morphology of a new hominin species.  Journal of Human Evolution 57: 571-596.

Falk, Dean, Charles Hildebolt, Kirk Smith, M.J. Morwood, Thomas Sutikna, Peter Brown, Jatmiko, E. Wayhu Saptomo, Barry Brunsden, and Fred Prior.  2005.  “The brain of LB1, Homo floresiensis.”  Science 308: 242-245.

Haile-Selassie, Y., S.M. Melillo, A. Vazzana, S. Benazzi, and T.M. Ryan.  2019.  A 3.8-million-year-old hominin cranium from Woranso-Mille, Ethiopia.  Nature 573:214–219.

Kaifu, Yousuke, Hisao Baba, Thomas Sutikna, Michael J. Morwood, Daisuke Kubo, E. Wahyu Saptomo, Jatmiko, Rokhus Due Awe, and Tony Djubiantono.  2011.  “Craniofacial morphology of Homo floresiensis: Description, taxonomic affinities, and evolutionary implication.”  Journal of Human Evolution 61: 644-682.

Kaifu, Yousuke, Reiko T. Kono, Thomas Sutikna, Emanuel Wahyu Saptomo, Jatmiko, and Rokus Due Awe.  2015a.  “Unique dental morphology of Homo floresiensis and its evolutionary implications.”  PLoS ONE 10 (11): e0141614.

Kaifu, Yousukke, Reiko T. Kono, Thomas Sutikna, E. Wahyu Saptomo, Jatmiko, Rokus Due Awe, and Hisao Baba.  2015b.  “Descriptions of the dental remains of Homo floresiensis.”  Anthropological Science 123 (2): 129-145.

Mongle, Carrie S., David S. Strait, and Frederick E. Grine.  2019.  Expanded character sampling underscores phylogenetic stability of Ardipithecus ramidus as a basal hominin.  Journal of Human Evolution 131:28-39.

Trafi, Francesc Ribot, Mario García Bartual, and Qian Wang.  2018.  The affinities of Homo antecessor – a review of craniofacial features and their taxonomic validity.  Anthropological Review 81(3):225-251.

Wood, Todd.  2020.  An expanded character set for evaluating the phylogenetic position of Homo floresiensis.  In Program of the 89th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists April 15-18, 2020, ed. Steven R. Leigh, 312.  Los Angeles, CA: American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

Usage notes

Information on Homo floresiensis characters in Readme file.