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Mesozoic origin and out-of-India radiation of ricefishes (Adrianichthyidae)

Cite this dataset

Yamahira, Kazunori et al. (2021). Mesozoic origin and out-of-India radiation of ricefishes (Adrianichthyidae) [Dataset]. Dryad.


The Indian subcontinent has an origin geologically different from Eurasia, but many terrestrial animal and plant species on it have congeneric or sister species in other parts of Asia, especially in the Southeast. This faunal and floral similarity between India and Southeast Asia is explained by either of the two biogeographic scenarios, ‘into-India’ or ‘out-of-India.’ Phylogenies based on complete mitochondrial genome and five nuclear genes were undertaken for ricefishes (Adrianichthyidae) to examine which of these two biogeographic scenarios fits better. We found that Oryzias setnai, the only adrianichthyid distributed in and endemic to the Western Ghats, a mountain range running parallel to the western coast of the Indian subcontinent, is sister to all other adrianichthyids from eastern India and Southeast–East Asia. Divergence time estimates and ancestral area reconstructions reveal that this western Indian species diverged in the late Mesozoic during the northward drift of the Indian subcontinent. These findings indicate that adrianichthyids dispersed eastward ‘out of India’ after the collision of the Indian subcontinent with Eurasia, and subsequently diversified in Southeast–East Asia. A review of geographic distributions of ‘out-of-India’ taxa reveals that they may have largely fuelled or modified the biodiversity of Eurasia.


University of the Ryukyus, Award: Research Project Promotion Grant

University of the Ryukyus, Award: Spatiotemporal Genomics Project

National Institute of Genetics, Award: Collaborative grant (B)

Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Award: KAKENHI Grant Number 17H01675

Japan Science and Technology Agency, Award: CREST Grant Number JPMJCR20S2