Data from: Comparative analysis of adaptive and neutral markers of Drosophila mediopunctata populations dispersed among forest fragments
Batista, Marcos R. D.; Penha, Rafael E. S.; Sofia, Silvia H.; Klaczko, Louis B. (2019), Data from: Comparative analysis of adaptive and neutral markers of Drosophila mediopunctata populations dispersed among forest fragments, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.9r4r7p1
Comparison of adaptive and neutral genetic markers is a valuable approach to characterize the evolutionary consequences of populations living in environments threatened by anthropogenic disturbances, such as forest fragmentation. Shifts in allele frequencies, low genetic variability, and a small effective population size can be considered clear signs of forest fragmentation effects (due to genetic drift) over natural populations, while adaptive responses correlate with environmental variables. Brazilian Atlantic Forest had its landscape drastically reduced and fragmented. Now, several forest remnants are isolated from each other by urban and crop areas. We sampled Drosophila mediopunctata populations from eight forest remnants dispersed on two adjacent geomorphological regions, which are physiognomic and climatically quite distinct. Microsatellite data of inversion‐free chromosomes (neutral genetic marker) indicate low structuration among populations suggesting that they were panmictic and greatly influenced by gene flow. Moreover, significant differences in chromosomal inversion frequencies (adaptive genetic marker) among populations and their correlations with climatic and geographical variables indicate that genetic divergence among populations could be an adaptive response to their environment. Nonetheless, we observed a significant difference in inversion frequencies of a population in two consecutive years that may be associated with edge and demographic effects. Also, it may be reflecting seasonal changes of inversion frequencies influenced by great temperature variation due to edge effects. Moreover, the forest fragment size does not affect genetic variation of neutral markers. Our data indicate that despite oscillations in chromosomal inversion frequencies, D. mediopunctata populations from Brazilian Atlantic Forest and their divergence may be driven by adaptive factors to local differences, perhaps because it is a small flying insect easily carried by the wind increasing its migration rates.