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Evolution and phylogeny of the deep-sea isopod families Desmosomatidae Sars, 1897 and Nannoniscidae Hansen, 1916 (Isopoda: Asellota)

Citation

Jennings, Robert et al. (2021), Evolution and phylogeny of the deep-sea isopod families Desmosomatidae Sars, 1897 and Nannoniscidae Hansen, 1916 (Isopoda: Asellota), Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.9w0vt4bfp

Abstract

In the deep sea, the phylogeny and biogeography of only a few taxa have been well studied. Although more than 200 species in 32 genera have been described for the asellote isopod families Desmosomatidae Sars, 1897 and Nannoniscidae Hansen, 1916 from all ocean basins, their phylogenetic relationships are not completely understood. There is little doubt about the close relationship of these families, but the taxonomic position of a number of genera is so far unknown. Based on a combined morphological phylogeny using the Hennigian method with a dataset of 107 described species and a molecular phylogeny based on three markers (COI, 16S, and 18S) with 75 species (most new to science), we could separate Desmosomatidae and Nannoniscidae as separate families. However, we could not support the concept of the subfamilies Eugerdellatinae Hessler, 1970 and Desmosomatinae Hessler, 1970. Most genera of both families were well supported, but several genera appear as para- or even polyphyletic. Within both families, convergent evolution and analogies caused difficulty in defining apomorphies for phylogenetic reconstructions and this is reflected in the results of the concatenated molecular tree. There is no biogeographic pattern in the distribution as the genera occur over the entire Atlantic and Pacific Ocean, showing no specific phylogeographical pattern. Poor resolution at deep desmosomatid nodes may reflect the long evolutionary history of the family and rapid evolutionary radiations.

Methods

All sequences were obtained by single-gene PCR and sequencing on individual vouchered specimens collected at sea and preserved in ethanol.

18S and 16S sequences were aligned separately in MAFFT v.7 using default settings. Those outputs were then filtered through Gblocks v0.91b using all 3 options for a less stringent selection to create these final alignments.

COI sequences were aligned as DNA codons in BioEdit using the CLUSTAL algorithm.

Funding

Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Award: BR3848/6-1

Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Frankfurt