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Data for PNASnexus article Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 deficiency leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and impacts salivary gland stem cell phenotype


Viswanathan, Vignesh (2022), Data for PNASnexus article Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 deficiency leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and impacts salivary gland stem cell phenotype, Dryad, Dataset,


Adult salivary stem/progenitor cells (SSPC) have an intrinsic property to self-renew in order to maintain tissue architecture and homeostasis. Adult salivary glands have been documented to harbor SSPC, which have been shown to play a vital role in the regeneration of the glandular structures post radiation damage. We have previously demonstrated that activation of aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 (ALDH3A1) after radiation reduced aldehyde accumulation in SSPC, leading to less apoptosis and improved salivary function. We subsequently found that sustained pharmacological ALDH3A1 activation is critical to enhance regeneration of murine submandibular gland after radiation damage. Further investigation shows that ALDH3A1 function is crucial for SSPC self-renewal and survival even in the absence of radiation stress. Salivary glands from Aldh3a1-null mice have fewer acinar structures than wildtype mice. ALDH3A1 deletion or pharmacological inhibition in SSPC leads to a decrease in mitochondrial DNA copy number, lower expression of mitochondrial specific genes and proteins, structural abnormalities, lower membrane potential, and reduced cellular respiration. Loss or inhibition of ALDH3A1 also elevates ROS levels and accumulation of ALDH3A1 substrate 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE, a lipid peroxidation product), leading to decreased survival of murine SSPC that can be rescued by treatment with 4-HNE specific carbonyl scavengers. Our data indicate that ALDH3A1 activity protects mitochondrial function and is important for the regeneration activity of SSPC. This knowledge will help to guide our translational strategy of applying ALDH3A1 activators in the clinic to prevent radiation-related hyposalivation in head and neck cancer patients.


Flow cytometry experiments:

The data file was exported and analysed using Flowjo software. All the data was normalized to the control of the experiment.

Immmunostaining experiments:

The immunostaining images were uploaded and quantified using ImageJ software. The color threshold was set for each antibody stain and was kept consistent across all groups. The intensity was measured, quantified and represented as mean fluoresence intensity for immunofluoresence or Mean Arbitary units for Immunohistochemistry experiment.

PCR based experiments:

The protocol for PCR is described in the manuscript. The expression was normalized to the WT group.

All other data sets:

The experiment and analyses is well described in the manuscript.


Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program, Award: 27FT-0038

National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, Award: UL1TR003142

National Institutes of Health, Award: AA11147