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Data from: Is increased male flower production a strategy for avoidance of predispersal seed predation in andromonoecious plants?

Cite this dataset

Kudo, Gaku (2022). Data from: Is increased male flower production a strategy for avoidance of predispersal seed predation in andromonoecious plants? [Dataset]. Dryad.


Floral gender in angiosperms often varies within and among populations. We conducted a field survey to test how predispersal seed predation affects sex allocation in an andromonoecious alpine herb Peucedanum multivittatum. We compared plant size, male and perfect flower production, fruit set, and seed predation rate over three years among nine populations inhabiting diverse snowmelt conditions in alpine meadows. Flowering period of individual populations varied from mid-July to late August reflecting the snowmelt time. Although perfect flower and fruit productions increased with plant size, size-dependency of male flower production was less clear. The number of male flowers was larger in the early-flowering populations, while the number of perfect flowers increased in the late-flowering populations. Thus, male-biased sex allocation was common in the early-flowering populations. Fruit-set rates varied among populations and between years, irrespective of flowering period. Fruit-set success of individual plants increased with perfect flower number, but independent of male flower number. Seed predation by lepidopteran larvae was intense in the early-flowering populations, whereas predation damage was absent in the late-flowering populations, reflecting the extent of phenological matching between flowering time of host plants and oviposition period of predator moths. Seed predation rate was independent of male and perfect flower numbers of individual plants. Thus, seed predation is a stochastic event in each population. There was a clear correlation between the proportion of male flowers and the intensity of seed predation among populations. These results suggest that male-biased sex allocation could be a strategy to reduce seed predation damage but maintain the effort as a pollen donor under intensive seed predation.


We surveyed the relationship between floral sex allocation and predispersal seed predation in an alpine andromonoecious herb, Peucedanum multivittatum, across nine populations in the Taisetsu mountains of northern Japan over three years (2017-2019). I this dataset, locations of populations, plant size, number of male and hermaphrodite flowers, fruit-set, and seed predation rate are included, that were used for analyses. All data were collected in the field survey by the authors.

Usage notes

In the Excel file, four sheets are included: 
1) Notes
2) Location of study plots in the Taisetsu Mountains, Hokkaido of northern Japan
3) Reproductive data of Peucedanum multivittatum populations across plots during three observation years (2017-2019)
4) Data set of size-dependent sex allocation and reproductive performance observed in 2017