Data from: Absence of founder effect and evidence for adaptive divergence in a recently introduced insular population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).
Fuller, Jérémie et al. (2019), Data from: Absence of founder effect and evidence for adaptive divergence in a recently introduced insular population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)., Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.bk3j9kd6j
Islands are generally colonized by few individuals which could lead to a founder effect causing loss of genetic diversity and rapid divergence by strong genetic drift. Insular conditions can also induce new selective pressures on populations. Here, we investigated the extent of genetic differentiation within a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population introduced on an island and its differentiation with its source mainland population. In response to their novel environmental conditions, introduced deer changed phenotypically from mainland individuals, therefore we investigated the genetic bases of the morphological differentiation. The study was conducted on Anticosti Island (Québec, Canada) where 220 individuals were introduced 120 years ago, resulting in a population size over 160,000 individuals. We used genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) to generate 8,518 filtered high-quality SNPs and compared patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation between the continental and Anticosti Island populations. Clustering analyses indicated a single panmictic island population and no sign of isolation by distance. Our results revealed a weak, albeit highly significant, genetic differentiation between the Anticosti Island population and its source population (mean FST = 0.005), which allowed a population assignment success of 93%. Also, the high genetic diversity maintained in the introduced population supports the absence of a strong founder effect due to the large number of founders followed by rapid population growth. We further used a polygenic approach to assess the genetic bases of the divergent phenotypical traits between insular and continental populations. We found loci related to muscular function and lipid metabolism, which suggested that these could be involved in local adaptation on Anticosti Island. We discuss these results in a harvest management context.