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Temperature-dependent competitive outcomes between the fruit flies Drosophila santomea and D. yakuba

Citation

Comeault, Aaron; Matute, Daniel (2020), Temperature-dependent competitive outcomes between the fruit flies Drosophila santomea and D. yakuba, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.bk3j9kd8t

Abstract

We use these data to test whether temperature can indirectly affect the fitness of Drosophila santomea and D. yakuba by altering interspecific competitive outcomes. We show that, when raised in isolation, both D. santomea and D. yakuba display similar variation in relative fitness across temperatures of 18°C, 22°C, and 25°C. However, D. santomea has higher fitness than D. yakuba when experiencing interspecific competition at 18°C, while the inverse is true at 25°C. Patterns of fitness across thermal and competitive environments therefore indicate that the outcome of interspecific competition varies with temperature. We then use a ‘coexistence’ experiment to show that D. santomea is rapidly (within 8 generations) extirpated when maintained with D. yakuba at 25°C. By contrast, D. santomea remains as (or more) abundant than D. yakuba over the course of ~10 generations when maintained at 18°C. Results provide an example of how the thermal environment can affect interspecific competition and suggest that some species may become more prone to extinction under scenarios of climate change through indirect effects of the thermal environment on competitive advantages between species.

Methods

Raw count data were collected in the lab.

Climate data were downloaded (bioclim variables) or recorded using Senonics Minnow 1.0TH data loggers.

All data given are raw data. Associated scripts used to process and analyze those data are also provided.

Usage Notes

## README file for data / scripts associated with the manuscript:
## "Temperature-dependent competitive outcomes between the fruit flies Drosophila santomea and D. yakuba"


File name: analyze_climate_bioclim.R
Description: R script used to analyze bioclim data covering the island of Sao Tome; Associated data files: data_abundance_san_yaK_F1s.csv, data_coordinates_yakuba_included.csv

File name: analyze_climate_dataloggers.R
Description: R script used to analyze temperature data collected using data loggers; Associated data files: saotome_TempHumid_data.zip

File name: analyze_competition_cages.R
Description: R script use to analyze counts of D. santomea and D. yakuba within each cage set up for the multi-generational experiment; Associated data files: data_competition_cages.txt

File name: analyze_within_gen.R
Description: R script used to analyze counts of D. santomea and D. yakuba eclosing at different temperatures in the single-generation competition experiment; Associated data files: data_within_gen.txt

File name: data_abundance_san_yaK_F1s.csv
Description: Data table with counts of D. santomea, D. yakuba, and their two hybrids sampled along an elevational transect on Sao Tome. Altitude field is the sites elevation above sea level in meters.

File name: data_competition_cages.txt
Description: Data table containing counts of D. santomea, D. yakuba, and potential hybrids collected over the course of the multigenerational competition experiment. Each unique cage is identified by the temp and rep fields. The date the cages were sampled is also given. 

File name: data_coordinates_yakuba_included.csv
Description: Data table containing coordinates for each site along the elevational transect on Sao Tome. This table also presents the more abundant species, D. santomea or D. yakuba, at each site.

File name: data_ficus_emergence.csv
Description: Data table containing counts of different drosophilids eclosing from three species of fig sampled from the forest floor on Sao Tome.

File name: data_within_gen.txt
Description: Data table containing counts of D. santomea and D. yakuba eclosing over the course of the single-generation competition experiment.

File name: saotome_TempHumid_data.zip
Description: archive containing data tables of temperature values recorded across 8 sits on Sao Tome in February 2018.

Funding

National Science Foundation, Award: 1737752