Data from: Phenotypic selection exerted by a seed predator is replicated in space and time and among prey species
Benkman, Craig W.; Mezquida, Eduardo T. (2015), Data from: Phenotypic selection exerted by a seed predator is replicated in space and time and among prey species, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.c4018
Although consistent phenotypic selection arising from biotic interactions is thought to be the primary cause of adaptive diversification, studies documenting such selection are relatively few. Here we analyze 12 episodes of phenotypic selection exerted by a predispersal seed predator, the red crossbill (Loxia curvirostra complex), on five species of pines (Pinus). We find that even though the intensity of selection for some traits increased with the strength of the interaction (i.e., proportion of seeds eaten), the relative strength of selection exerted by crossbills on cone and seed traits is replicated across space, time, and among species. Such selection (1) can account for repeated patterns of conifer cone evolution, and escalation in seed defenses with time, and (2) suggests that variation in selection is less the result of variation intrinsic to pairwise biotic interactions than, for example, variation in relative densities of the interacting species, community context, and abiotic factors.