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Repolarization and contractility in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients

Citation

Radbill, Andrew et al. (2021), Repolarization and contractility in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.cjsxksn4k

Abstract

Aims: Arrhythmia mechanisms in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy remain uncertain. Preclinical models suggest hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-linked mutations perturb sarcomere length-dependent activation, alter cardiac repolarization in rate-dependent fashion and potentiate triggered electrical activity. This study was designed to assess rate-dependence of clinical surrogates of contractility and repolarization in humans with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Methods: All participants had a cardiac implantable device capable of atrial pacing. Cases had clinical diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, controls were age-matched. Continuous electrocardiogram and blood pressure were recorded during and immediately after 30 second pacing trains delivered at increasing rates.

Results: Nine hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients and 10 controls were enrolled (47% female, median 55 years), with similar baseline QRS duration, QT interval and blood pressure. Median septal thickness in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients was 18mm; 33% of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients had peak sub-aortic velocity >50mmHg. Ventricular ectopy occurred during or immediately after pacing trains in 4/9 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients and 0/10 controls (P=0.03). At faster drive trains, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients showed a non-significant trend towards a shallower QT-RR slope than controls. After normalization to the preceding pacing train QT interval, the normalized QT interval of the first post-pause recovery beat after pacing trains was similar between cohorts. No statistically significant differences were seen in surrogate measures for cardiac contractility.

Conclusion: Rapid pacing trains triggered ventricular ectopy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients, but not controls. This finding aligns with pre-clinical descriptions of excessive cardiomyocyte calcium loading during rapid pacing, increased post-pause sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release, and subsequent calcium-triggered activity. Normal contractility at all diastolic intervals argues against clinical significance of altered length-dependent myofilament activation.

Funding

Vanderbilt Clinical and Translational Science Award grant from the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences/National Institutes of Health , Award: UL1 TR000445