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Multiple lines of evidence for independent origin of wild and cultivated flowering cherry (Prunus yedoensis)

Citation

Cho, Myong-Suk; Kim, Seung-Chul (2019), Multiple lines of evidence for independent origin of wild and cultivated flowering cherry (Prunus yedoensis), Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.cz8w9gj02

Abstract

As with many other ornamental and cultivated plants that have been under human selection and cultivation for a long time, it has been a major challenge to trace back the complex evolutionary history of flowering cherry, Prunus yedoensis. This challenge has been further amplified by great morphological similarities, little molecular divergence, frequent natural and artificial hybridization, and poor documentation of breeding history among cultivated and wild flowering cherries. The origin and taxonomic distinction between wild P. yedoensis from Jeju Island, Korea, and one of the most popular cultivated flowering cherries, P. × yedoensis ‘Somei-yoshino’ has been a controversy for the past few decades. We sampled many areas extensively, and using four different molecular markers we provided evidence for their independent origin. Wild P. yedoensis in Korea originated from multiple bidirectional hybridization events between two sympatric species, P. spachiana f. ascendens as the maternal species and P. serrulata var. spontanea/P. serrulata var. quelpaertensis as the most probable paternal species. On the contrary, our results supported a single artificial hybrid origin of P. × yedoensis ‘Somei-yoshino’ from cultivated P. spachiana f. ascendens as the maternal species and P. speciosa, a species endemic to Izu Islands, as the paternal species. Based on extensive sampling, we provided strong evidence that wild and cultivated P. yedoensis are distinct taxonomic entities that have originated from different evolutionary processes. A potential for the development of new cultivars from wild P. yedoensis and conservation of diverse germplasms in situ insular setting and ex situ should be explored in the future.

Usage Notes

Alignment of seven concatenated chloroplast DNA regions in nexus format (petA-psbJ, petD-rpoA, ndhF-rpl32, trnQ-rps16, trnV-ndhC, rpl16 intron, and trnL-rpl32 regions) for cpDNA phylogeny (194 accessions and 5,547 characters).

Data1_7cp concatenated.nex

Alignment of nuclear DNA ITS region in nexus format for ITS phylogeny (a total of 322 accessions of 178 direct and 144 cloned sequences and 600 characters).

Data2_ITS.nex

Alignment of four concatenated nuclear RosCOS loci (RosCOS 00517, 03628, 01167, and 01445) in nexus format for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) analysis and split graph networking (a total of 87 accessions and 1,250 characters).

Data3_RosCOS 4 loci.nex

Alignment of PolA1 PI19 intron data sets in nexus format for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) analysis (a total of 72 accessions; 25 accessions of cloned sequences and directly sequenced 41 accessions and 630 characters).

Data4_POLA1 PI19-1 intron.nex

Alignment of PolA1 PI21 intron data sets in nexus format for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) analysis (a total of 47 accessions and 764 characters).

Data5_POLA PI21 intron.nex

Alignment of five concatenated chloroplast DNA regions in nexus format (petB-petD, petD-rpoA, trnS-trnG, rpl16, and ycf1) for chloroplast haplotype network analysis (a total of 105 accessions and 2,826 characters).

Data6_5cp concatenated.nex

Funding

National Research Foundation of Korea, Award: 2017R1A6A3A01075954

National Research Foundation of Korea, Award: 2017R1A2B3001923