Data from: Phylogeography of the small Indian civet and origin of introductions to western Indian Ocean islands
Cite this dataset
Gaubert, Philippe et al. (2016). Data from: Phylogeography of the small Indian civet and origin of introductions to western Indian Ocean islands [Dataset]. Dryad. https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.dt177
The biogeographic dynamics affecting the Indian subcontinent, East and Southeast Asia during the Plio-Pleistocene has generated complex biodiversity patterns. We assessed the molecular biogeography of the small Indian civet (Viverricula indica) through mitogenome and cytochrome b + control region sequencing of 89 historical and modern samples to (i) establish a time-calibrated phylogeography across the species’ native range and (ii) test introduction scenarios to western Indian Ocean islands. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses identified three geographic lineages (East Asia, sister-group to Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent + northern Indochina) diverging 3.2 – 2.3 Mya, with no clear signature of past demographic expansion. Within Southeast Asia, Balinese populations separated from the rest 2.6 – 1.3 Mya. Western Indian Ocean populations were assigned to the Indian subcontinent + northern Indochina lineage and had the lowest mitochondrial diversity. Approximate Bayesian computation did not distinguish between single vs. multiple introduction scenarios. The early diversification of the small Indian civet was likely shaped by humid periods in the Late Pliocene – Early Pleistocene that created evergreen rainforest barriers, generating areas of intra-specific endemism in the Indian subcontinent, East and Southeast Asia. Later Pleistocene dispersals through drier conditions in South and Southeast Asia were likely, giving rise to the species’ current natural distribution. Our molecular data supported the delineation of only four subspecies in V. indica, including an endemic Balinese lineage. Our study also highlighted the influence of pre-first millennium AD introductions to western Indian Ocean islands, with Indian and/or Arab traders probably introducing the species for its civet oil.