Two-Round Ca2+ transient in papillae by mechanical stimulation induces metamorphosis in the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis type A
Wakai, Maiki et al. (2021), Two-Round Ca2+ transient in papillae by mechanical stimulation induces metamorphosis in the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis type A, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.dv41ns1wz
Marine invertebrate larvae are known to begin metamorphosis in response to environmentally-derived cues. However, little is known about the relationships between the perception of such cues and internal signalling for metamorphosis. To elucidate the mechanism underlying the initiation of metamorphosis in the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis type A (Ciona robusta), we artificially induced ascidian metamorphosis and investigated Ca2+ dynamics from pre- to post-metamorphosis. Ca2+ transients were observed and consisted of two temporally distinct phases with different durations before tail regression which is the early event of metamorphosis. In the first phase, Phase I, the Ca2+ transient in the papillae (adhesive organ of anterior trunk) was coupled with the Ca2+ transient in dorsally localised cells and endoderm cells just after mechanical stimulation. The Ca2+ transients in Phase I were also observed when applying only short stimulation. In the second phase, Phase II, the Ca2+ transient in papillae was observed again and lasted for~5–11 min just after the Ca2+ transient in Phase I continued for a few minutes. The impaired papillae by Foxg-knockdown failed to induce the second Ca2+ transient in Phase II and tail regression. In Phase II, a wave-like Ca2+ propagation was also observed across the entire epidermis. Our results indicate that the papillae sense a mechanical cue and two-round Ca2+ transients in papillae transmits the internal metamorphic signals to different tissues, which subsequently induces tail regression. Our study will help elucidate the internal mechanism of metamorphosis in marine invertebrate larvae in response to environmental cues.