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Data from: Not going with the flow: a comprehensive time-calibrated phylogeny of dragonflies (Anisoptera: Odonata: Insecta) provides evidence for the role of lentic habitats on diversification

Citation

Letsch, Harald; Gottsberger, Brigitte; Ware, Jessica L. (2016), Data from: Not going with the flow: a comprehensive time-calibrated phylogeny of dragonflies (Anisoptera: Odonata: Insecta) provides evidence for the role of lentic habitats on diversification, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.f3d4f

Abstract

Ecological diversification of aquatic insects has long been suspected to have been driven by differences in freshwater habitats, which can be classified into flowing (lotic) waters and standing (lentic) waters. The contrasting characteristics of lotic and lentic freshwater systems imply different ecological constraints on their inhabitants. The ephemeral and discontinuous character of most lentic water bodies may encourage dispersal by lentic species in turn reducing geographical isolation among populations. Hence, speciation probability would be lower in lentic species. Here, we assess the impact of habitat use on diversification patterns in dragonflies (Anisoptera: Odonata). Based on the eight nuclear and mitochondrial genes, we inferred species diversification with a model-based evolutionary framework, to account for rate variation through time and among lineages and to estimate the impact of larval habitat on the potentially nonrandom diversification among anisopteran groups. Ancestral state reconstruction revealed lotic fresh water systems as their original primary habitat, while lentic waters have been colonized independently in Aeshnidae, Corduliidae and Libellulidae. Furthermore, our results indicate a positive correlation of speciation and lentic habitat colonization by dragonflies: speciation rates increased in lentic Aeshnidae and Libellulidae, whereas they remain mostly uniform among lotic groups. This contradicts the hypothesis of inherently lower speciation in lentic groups and suggests species with larger ranges are more likely to diversify, perhaps due to higher probability of larger areas being dissected by geographical barriers. Furthermore, larger range sizes may comprise more habitat types, which could also promote speciation by providing additional niches, allowing the coexistence of emerging species.

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