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Arunachal macaque evolves into two phylogenetic species after geographical isolation by Sela mountain pass


Thakur, Mukesh et al. (2021), Arunachal macaque evolves into two phylogenetic species after geographical isolation by Sela mountain pass, Dryad, Dataset,


Arunachal macaque (M. munzala) is an endangered and recently discovered cercopithecine primate from the Western Arunachal Pradesh, India. On genetic analyses with nuclear markers from a range-wide collected samples of Arunachal macaque, we observed two major clusters following the spatially explicit and non-explicit Bayesian and non-Bayesian clustering algorithms. The study captured 13 noble haplotypes at mitochondrial d loop region, which were found distributed following a strong geo-spatial structure with agreement to the nuclear STR markers. The study establishes Sela mountain pass is a zoo-geographic barrier, which splits Arunachal macaques about 1.96 mya into two phylogenetic species i.e. M. munzala and M. selaii, in the west and east side of Sela pass. We also propose the newly reported species, M. selaii is a species complex where a few conservation units are lumped. Further, the coalescent based Bayesian skyline plot analysis suggested a steady reduction in the effective population size of Arunachal macaques in Tawang and West Kameng during last 2000 years. The present range-wide phylogeographic study on Arunachal macaque warrants an immediate attention of biologists and conservation authorities to accord necessary taxonomic recognition of the proposed species of Arunachal macaque. This study set the stage for further elaborated genomic studies and taxonomic revision of Arunachal macaques, that will influence the ongoing conservation efforts, funding allocation for the conservation and management of Arunachal macaque at regional and global scale.


Non-invasively collected samples-faecal samples.

Collected in 70% ethanol.

Usage Notes

This microsat_data_of_Arunachal_macaque_readme.txt file was generated on 2021-02-25 by NAME microsat_data_of_Arunachal_macaque


1. Title of Dataset: microsat_data_of_Arunachal_macaque

2. Author Information
    A. Principal Investigator Contact Information
        Name: Mukesh Thakur, Sci C.
        Institution: Zoological Survey of India
        Address: Block M, New Alipore,  Kolkata-73

    B. Associate or Co-investigator Contact Information
        Name: Avijit Ghosh
        Institution: Zoological Survey of India
        Address: Block M, New Alipore,  Kolkata-73

    C. Alternate Contact Information

3. Date of data collection : 2018-2020

4. Geographic location of data collection: Arunachal Pradesh, India. Tawang>pop1, WestKameng>pop2

5. Information about funding sources that supported the collection of the data: NMHS/2017-18/LG09/02/476


1. Licenses/restrictions placed on the data:

2. Links to publications that cite or use the data: 

3. Links to other publicly accessible locations of the data: 

4. Links/relationships to ancillary data sets: 

5. Was data derived from another source?   no

6. Recommended citation for this dataset: 


1. File List: 

2. Relationship between files, if important: 

3. Additional related data collected that was not included in the current data package: mtDNA sequences and Geographical coordinates

4. Are there multiple versions of the dataset? no


1. Description of methods used for collection/generation of data: microsatellite genotyping

2. Methods for processing the data: Automated and manual allele calling in 'genemapper

3. Instrument- or software-specific information needed to interpret the data: GenAlEx 6.5

4. Standards and calibration information, if appropriate: 

5. Environmental/experimental conditions: 

6. Describe any quality-assurance procedures performed on the data: consensus allele calling from triplicate genotypes

7. People involved with sample collection, processing, analysis and/or submission: Avijit Ghosh, Ritam Dutta

DATA-SPECIFIC INFORMATION FOR: [microsat_data_of_Arunachal_macaque]
1. Number of variables: 9 loci, 2 populations

2. Number of cases/rows: 38 individuals

3. Variable List: 

4. Missing data codes: 0

5. Specialized formats or other abbreviations used: