Skip to main content
Dryad logo

Data for contribution of marine phytoplankton and bacteria to ocean alkalinity

Citation

Lee, Kitack; Lee, Chang-Ho (2021), Data for contribution of marine phytoplankton and bacteria to ocean alkalinity, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.fbg79cnvp

Abstract

The contributions of phytoplankton and bacteria cells to alkalinity (AT) were measured in seawater samples obtained from 205 locations including the East Sea, the North Pacific Ocean, the Bering Sea, the Chukchi Sea, and the Arctic Ocean. We attributed the differences in AT values measured for unfiltered versus filtered samples to AT components contributed by phytoplankton (retained on a 0.7 µm filter) and by phytoplankton and bacteria combined (AT-BIO; retained on a 0.45 µm filter). The AT-BIO values reached 10-19 μmol kg-1 in the East Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, and progressively decreased to a level of 1 μmol kg-1 with distance towards the Arctic Ocean. The study shows that the AT-BIO values are non-negligible in coastal and open ocean environments and need to be considered when assessing the accuracy of carbon parameters calculated using the thermodynamic models that use measured AT as an input parameter.

Methods

Sampling locations

Sampling was carried out on board the R/V ARAON during the study from 17 July 2020 to 15 September 2020. The sampling locations were approximately evenly spaced along a transect from the East Sea to the North Pacific Ocean, the Bering Sea, the Chukchi Sea, and the Arctic Ocean. A total of 205 surface seawater samples were collected in 4-L polycarbonate bottles from the underway clean seawater line. To obtain depth profiles, a total 24 discrete samples were collected in 1-L high density polyethylene bottles using a rosette sampler (SeaBird Electronics, SBE 911 plus) at two sites (76.003ºN, 170.588ºW; 74.499ºN, 162.262ºW) in the Arctic Ocean.

Determination of AT, AT-BIO, AT-PLANKTON, and AT-BACTERIA

For each seawater sample the AT values of an unfiltered and a filtered (0.7 μm and 0.45 μm) sample were measured within 12 h of collection. The total contribution of all biogenic particles to the AT of the unfiltered seawater (AT-BIO; Equation 2) was determined as the difference between the measured AT values of the unfiltered sample and the 0.45 μm-filtered sample, followed by subtraction of the CaCO3 contribution (AT-PIC), which was calculated from the particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) concentration determined as described in Text S1. In this calculation we assumed that the particulate matter contribution to AT mostly comprised phytoplankton and bacteria cells, and CaCO3 shells. The contribution of phytoplankton cells to AT (AT-PLANKTON; Equation 3) was determined as the difference in measured AT between the unfiltered sample and the 0.7 μm-filtered sample, followed by subtraction of AT-PIC. The contribution of bacteria (AT-BACTERIA; Equation 4) was determined by calculating the difference in measured AT values between the 0.7 μm-filtered sample and the 0.45 μm-filtered sample.

          AT-BIO = AT-PLANKTON + AT-BACTERIA = AT-unfiltered – AT-0.45 μm-filtered – AT-PIC      (2)

          AT-PLANKTON = AT-unfiltered – AT-0.7 μm-filtered – AT-PIC                                      (3)

          AT-BACTERIA = AT- 0.7 μm-filtered – AT-0.45 μm-filtered                                           (4)

The precisions of measurements for three biological AT components were estimated from the root sum square of the standard deviations of all parameters involved ( ; see those relevant parameters in Equations 2, 3, 4, and Text S2) and were found to be 1.1 μmol kg-1 for AT-BIO, AT-PLANKTON, and AT-BACTERIA. Note that the AT-PIC component was not considered in the estimation of the precisions for AT-BIO and AT-PLANKTON because measurable PIC values were found only for 6 of the 205 samples.

For more details, see the methods section in the manuscript "Contribution of marine phytoplankton and bacteria to ocean alkalinity: an uncharacterized component".

Funding

Ministry of Science and ICT, South Korea, Award: NRF-2021R1A2C3008748

National Institute of Fisheries Science, Award: R2021051