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Genetic variation in parental effects contributes to the evolutionary potential of prey responses to predation risk

Citation

Tigreros, Natasha (2020), Genetic variation in parental effects contributes to the evolutionary potential of prey responses to predation risk, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.gf1vhhmmm

Abstract

Despite the ubiquity of parental effects and their potential impact on evolutionary dynamics, their contribution to the evolution of predator-prey interactions remains poorly understood. Using quantitative genetics, here we demonstrate that parental effects substantially contribute to the evolutionary potential of larval antipredator responses in a leaf beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata). Previous research showed that larger L. decemlineata larvae elicit stronger antipredator responses, and mothers perceiving predators improved offspring responses by increasing intraclutch cannibalism –an extreme form of offspring provisioning. We now report substantial additive genetic variation underlying maternal ability to induce intraclutch cannibalism, indicating the potential of this adaptive maternal effect to evolve by natural selection. We also show that paternal size, a heritable trait, impacted larval responses to predation risk, but that larval responses themselves had little additive genetic variation. Together, these results demonstrate how larval responses to predation risk can evolve via two types of parental effects, both of which provide indirect sources of genetic variation for offspring traits.

Methods

Data collected in a half-sib breeding experiment. Methods of collection and data analyis are provided in manuscript: "Genetic variation in parental effects contributes to the evolutionary potential of prey responses to predation risk"

Data is shown in three different worksheets: "Larval_responses", "Maternal_responses", and "Parent_OffspringSize_regression".

Usage Notes

Description of variables:

1) In both worksheets ("Larval_responses"and "Maternal_responses): Sire and Dam identities is provided under "Sire_ID" and "Dam_ID".

2) In both worksheets ("Larval_responses"and "Maternal_responses): "SireSize(mm)" and "DamSize(mm)" indicates parents' body size measured as the length of the right elytra (mm).

3) In both worksheets ("Larval_responses"and "Maternal_responses): "Treatment" includes "C"=the predator-free environment and "R"=the predation risk treatment.

4) "Larval_responses" workshit also includes: "LarvalMass(mg)"= mass in milligrams of 4 day old larvae; "LeafIntake(mm2)"=amount of leaf consumed by larvae measured as consumed leaf area (mm2); "AssimilationEfficinecy" = ratio of 4-d old larval mass over larval mass; "HatchingAsyncrony"=describes how soon a egg will hatch ("E"=early hatching, "L"=late hatching.

5) "Maternal_responses" worksheet also includes: "ClutchSize"=number of eggs in a clutch; "No.Larva"= number of hatchlings in a clutch; "EggsDamaged"=note about eggs that  had mechanical damaged during collection; "NumberOfEggsCorrected"=Total number of undamaged eggs, to be used when calculating proportion of cannibalism and proportion of hatchlings; "NumberCannibalized"=total number of eggs cannibalized; "Cannibalism_proportion"=proportion of eggs cannibalized in a clutch; "ProportionLarv"= proportion of hatchlings in a clutch.

6) "Parent_OffspringSize_regression" worksheet includes: "Sire_ID" = Sire identity; "SireSize(mm)" = Sire body size measured as length of the right elytra (mm); "Son(mm)"and "Daughter(mm)"= body size measured as the length of the right elytra (mm) for male and female offspring, respectively.