Skip to main content
Dryad logo

Data from: Macroevolutionary integration of phenotypes within and across ant worker castes

Citation

Friedman, Nicholas R. et al. (2021), Data from: Macroevolutionary integration of phenotypes within and across ant worker castes, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.gqnk98sjx

Abstract

Phenotypic traits are often integrated into evolutionary modules: sets of organismal parts that evolve together. In social insect colonies the concepts of integration and modularity apply to sets of traits both within and among functionally and phenotypically differentiated castes. On macroevolutionary timescales, patterns of integration and modularity within and across castes can be clues to the selective and ecological factors shaping their evolution and diversification. We develop a set of hypotheses describing contrasting patterns of worker integration and apply this framework in a broad (246 species) comparative analysis of major and minor worker evolution in the hyperdiverse ant genus Pheidole. Using geometric morphometrics in a phylogenetic framework, we inferred fast and tightly integrated evolution of mesosoma shape between major and minor workers, but slower and more independent evolution of head shape between the two worker castes. Thus, Pheidole workers are evolving as a mixture of intra- and inter-caste integration and rate heterogeneity. The decoupling of homologous traits across worker castes may represent an important process facilitating the rise of social complexity.

Methods

See text for details.

Usage Notes

"Pheidole_Morphology_Data_03282019.csv" is the main data file in wide format, which connects specimen IDs to species identity and summarizes principal components. Aligned landmarks for the head based on semi-landmarks are included in "Aligned_Head_Major.TPS" and "Aligned_Head_Minor.TPS". Unaligned landmarks for the head and mesosoma based on only true landmarks are included in the other .tps files, and filenames indicate whether they are majors or minors, and the head or mesosoma. "Pheidole_Tree.phy" is the phylogeny used, in PHYLIP format.

Funding

Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Award: Subsidy funding

Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Award: 17K15180

Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Award: 17K15178

National Science Foundation, Award: DEB-1145989