The effects of temperature extremes on survival in two semi-arid Australian bird communities over three decades, with predictions to 2104
Cite this dataset
Gardner, Janet et al. (2022). The effects of temperature extremes on survival in two semi-arid Australian bird communities over three decades, with predictions to 2104 [Dataset]. Dryad. https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.gqnk98srs
Aim: Organisms in arid and semi-arid regions are frequently exposed to climatic extremes and accordingly among the most vulnerable to climate change. Studies of seasonal differences in vital rates, which mediate effects of climate on viability, are rare in arid species limiting ability to project population trends. We quantified survival patterns for two bird communities as a function of expo-sure to temperature extremes in winter and summer, then project survival patterns to 2104.
Location: semi-arid eastern Australia
Time period: 1986-2016; 1986-2104
Major taxa studied: Birds
Methods: Using mark recapture time-dependent Cormack-Jolly-Seber models and data for 37 species from two 30-year ringing programs, we tested for effects on 6-monthly survival of expo-sure to temperatures >38oC and <0oC. We then predicted future survival for different emission scenarios, testing whether changes in survival associated with warming winters would be suffi-cient to offset the effects of rising summer temperatures. Results: Survival probability declined strongly with increasing exposure to days >38oC and to a lesser extent to days <0oC, with temperature extremes explaining 43% and 13% of temporal varia-tion in survival among years, respectively. Summer survival patterns were similar across avian guilds but only survival of nectarivores declined in winter. Our models predict that gains in winter survival will not offset reductions in summer survival.
Annual survival is predicted to decline sub-stantially by the end of the century: from 0.63 in 1986 to 0.43 in 2104 under an optimistic emis-sion scenario and to 0.11 under a pessimistic scenario. Main conclusions: We highlight the significance of temperature extremes for species’ persistence in arid and semi-arid regions, comprising 70% of Australia’s land mass, and 40% globally. Our demography-based results are consistent with physiological-based projections evaluating avian survival in arid and semi-arid regions globally and suggest rising summer temperatures pose a risk to population persistence in these regions.
Australian Research Council, Award: FT150100139