Data from: Testing for local adaptation to spawning habitat in sympatric subpopulations of pike by reciprocal translocation of embryos
Berggren, Hanna et al. (2017), Data from: Testing for local adaptation to spawning habitat in sympatric subpopulations of pike by reciprocal translocation of embryos, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.gr6t5
We tested for local adaption in early life-history traits by performing a reciprocal translocation experiment with approximately 2,500 embryos of pike (Esox lucius) divided in paired split-family batches. The experiment indicated local adaptation in one of the two subpopulations manifested as enhanced hatching success of eggs in the native habitat, both when compared to siblings transferred to a non-native habitat, and when compared to immigrant genotypes from the other subpopulation. Gene-by-environment effects on viability of eggs and larvae were evident in both subpopulations, showing that there existed genetic variation allowing for evolutionary responses to divergent selection, and indicating a capacity for plastic responses to environmental change. Next, we tested for differences in female life-history traits. Results uncovered that females from one population invested more resources into reproduction and also produced more (but smaller) eggs in relation to their body size compared to females from the other population. We suggest that these females have adjusted their reproductive strategies as a counter-adaptation because a high amount of sedimentation on the eggs in that subpopulations spawning habitat might benefit smaller eggs. Collectively, our findings point to adaptive divergence among sympatric subpopulations that are physically separated only for a short period during reproduction and early development—which is rare. These results illustrate how combinations of translocation experiments and field studies of life-history traits might infer about local adaptation and evolutionary divergence among populations. Local adaptations in subdivided populations are important to consider in management and conservation of biodiversity, because they may otherwise be negatively affected by harvesting, supplementation, and reintroduction efforts targeted at endangered populations.