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Data from: Genomic analysis offers insights into the evolution of the bovine TRA/TRD locus

Citation

Connelley, Timothy K.; Degnan, Kathryn; Longhi, Cassandra W.; Morrison, W. Ivan (2015), Data from: Genomic analysis offers insights into the evolution of the bovine TRA/TRD locus, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.h8j92

Abstract

Background: The TRA/TRD locus contains the genes for V(D)J somatic rearrangement of TRA and TRD chains expressed by αβ and γδ T cells respectively. Previous studies have demonstrated that the bovine TRA/TRD locus contains an exceptionally large number of TRAV/TRDV genes. In this study we combine genomic and transcript analysis to provide insights into the evolutionary development of the bovine TRA/TRD locus and the remarkable TRAV/TRDV gene repertoire. Results: Annotation of the UMD3.1 assembly identified 371 TRAV/TRDV genes (distributed in 42 subgroups), 3 TRDJ, 6 TRDD, 62 TRAJ and single TRAC and TRDC genes, most of which were located within a 3.5 Mb region of chromosome 10. Most of the TRAV/TRDV subgroups have multiple members and several have undergone dramatic expansion, most notably TRDV1 (60 genes). Wide variation in the proportion of pseudogenes within individual subgroups, suggest that differential ‘birth’ and ‘death’ rates have been used to form a functional bovine TRAV/TRDV repertoire which is phylogenetically distinct from that of humans and mice. The expansion of the bovine TRAV/TRDV gene repertoire has predominantly been achieved through a complex series of homology unit (regions of DNA containing multiple gene) replications. Frequent co-localisation within homology units of genes from subgroups with low and high pseudogene proportions suggest that replication of homology units driven by evolutionary selection for the former may have led to a ‘collateral’ expansion of the latter. Transcript analysis was used to define the TRAV/TRDV subgroups available for recombination of TRA and TRD chains and demonstrated preferential usage of different subgroups by the expressed TRA and TRD repertoires, indicating that TRA and TRD selection have had distinct impacts on the evolution of the TRAV/TRDV repertoire. Conclusion: Both TRA and TRD selection have contributed to the evolution of the bovine TRAV/TRDV repertoire. However, our data suggest that due to homology unit duplication TRD selection for TRDV1 subgroup expansion may have substantially contributed to the genomic expansion of several TRAV subgroups. Such data demonstrate how integration of genomic and transcript data can provide a more nuanced appreciation of the evolutionary dynamics that have led to the dramatically expanded bovine TRAV/TRDV repertoire.

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