Allometry constrains the evolution of sexual dimorphism in Drosophila across 33 million years of divergence
Sztepanacz, Jacqueline; Houle, David (2021), Allometry constrains the evolution of sexual dimorphism in Drosophila across 33 million years of divergence, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.h9w0vt4h6
Sexual dimorphism is widely viewed as adaptive, reflecting the evolution of males and females towards divergent fitness optima. Its evolution, however, may often be constrained by the shared genetic architecture of the sexes, and by allometry. Here, we investigated the evolution of sexual size dimorphism, shape dimorphism, and their allometric relationship in the wings of 82 taxa in the family Drosophilidae that have been diverging for at least 33 million years. Shape dimorphism among species was remarkably similar, with males characterized by longer thinner wings than females. There was quantitative variation among species, however, in both size and shape dimorphism, and evidence that they have adapted to different evolutionary optima in different clades on timescales of about 10 million years. Within species, shape dimorphism was predicted by size, and among species, there was a strong relationship between size dimorphism and shape dimorphism. Allometry constrained the evolution of shape dimorphism for the two most variable traits we studied but dimorphism was evolutionary labile in other traits. The keys for disentangling alternative explanations for dimorphism evolution are studies of natural and sexual selection, together with a deeper understanding of how microevolutionary parameters of evolvability relate to macroevolutionary patterns of divergence.
There is a .csv file of the data used in analyses and a ReadMe file that describes what is contained in the data file. There is also a .nex file of the phylogenetic relationships among species that were analyzed.