Skip to main content

Phylogeny, biogeography, and classification of the elms (Ulmus)

Cite this dataset

Hipp, Andrew et al. (2022). Phylogeny, biogeography, and classification of the elms (Ulmus) [Dataset]. Dryad.


A RAD-seq phylogeny is presented for the genus Ulmus, and a revised infrageneric classification is given, with keys, descriptions, and range maps for the subgenera and sections. The previously accepted classification was based on a cpDNA phylogeny, but several well-marked clades in the chloroplast phylogeny are not recovered in the RAD-seq phylogeny and do not seem to represent valid clades in the organismal phylogeny. Ordination and STRUCTURE analysis support a broad species concept in Ulmus sect. Foliaceae and demonstrate interspecific hybridization in the section. Several sections of the genus are disjunct between Asia, Europe, and North America, indicating dispersals between the northern continents with inferred dates from ca 20 Ma to ca 3 Ma. Morphological variation is discussed, and some characters previously considered characteristic of Ulmus subg. Oreoptelea (narrowly winged achenes, ciliate achene margin) are shared with the unrelated U. villosa.


Molecular data collected using RAD-seq method (sensu Baird et al. 2008); phylogeny estimated using maximum likelihood in RAxML. 

Usage notes

These are supplementary figures for the paper. All analysis scripts and datasets utilized to create these figures are housed in


United States Department of Agriculture, Award: 8020-21000-070-02S