Environmentally triggered variability in the genetic variance-covariance of herbivory resistance of an exotic plant Solidago altissima
Sakata, Yuzu et al. (2021), Environmentally triggered variability in the genetic variance-covariance of herbivory resistance of an exotic plant Solidago altissima, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.ht76hdrbt
The variability in the genetic variance-covariance (G-matrix) in plant resistance and its role in the evolution of invasive plants have been long overlooked. We conducted an additional analysis of the data of a reciprocal transplant experiment with tall goldenrod, Solidago altissima, in multiple garden sites within its native range (USA) and introduced range (Japan). We explored the differences in G-matrix of resistance to two types of foliar herbivores: (1) a lace bug that is native to the USA and recently introduced to Japan, (2) and other herbivorous insects in response to plant origins and environments. A negative genetic covariance was found between plant resistances to lace bugs and other herbivorous insects, in all combinations of garden locations and plant origins except for USA plants planted in USA gardens. The G-matrix of the resistance indices did not differ between USA and Japanese plants either in USA or Japanese gardens, while it differed between USA and Japanese gardens in both USA and Japanese plants. Our results suggested that the G-matrix of the plant resistance may have changed in response to novel environmental differences including herbivore communities and/or other biotic and abiotic factors in the introduced range. This may have revealed a hidden trade-off between resistances, masked by the environmental factors in the origin range. These results suggest that the stability of the genetic covariance during invasion and the environmentally triggered variability in the G-matrices of plant resistance may help to protect the plant against multiple herbivore species without changing its genetic architecture, and that this may lead to a rapid adaptation of resistance in exotic plants. Local environments of the plant also have a critical effect on plant resistance, and should be considered in order to understand trait evolution in exotic plants.
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Award: B-25291102