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Data from: Homogenization of populations in the wildflower Texas bluebonnet (Lupinus texensis)

Cite this dataset

Turner, Kathryn G.; Huang, Daisie I.; Cronk, Quentin C.B.; Rieseberg, Loren H. (2017). Data from: Homogenization of populations in the wildflower Texas bluebonnet (Lupinus texensis) [Dataset]. Dryad.


Wildflowers seeds are routinely spread along highways and thoroughfares throughout North America as part of federal beautification policy, but the genetic effect of the introduction of these cultivated populations on wild populations of the same species is unknown. Interbreeding may occur between these seeded and wild populations, resulting in several possible outcomes. Here we sample 187 individuals in 12 matched pairs of neighboring wild and seeded populations of the Texas bluebonnet (Lupinus texensis), a species popular in commercially available wildflower seed mixes used by both the Texas Department of Transportation and the public. We use genotyping by sequencing to identify 11,741 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms, as well as a smaller number of SNPs from the chloroplast genome, to analyze population structure and genetic diversity within and between the populations. We find a striking lack of population structure both between wild and seeded populations and amongst wild populations. STRUCTURE analyses indicate that all populations are apparently panmictic. This pattern may be explained by extensive swamping of wild populations by seeded germplasm and increased dispersal of semi-domesticated seed across this species’ core native range by humans. We discuss the possible negative and positive ramifications of homogenization on the evolutionary future of this popular wildflower species.

Usage notes


National Science Foundation, Award: PRFB 1523842


United States