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Genotype and individual data for genetic structure in Louisiana Iris species reveals patterns of recent and historical admixture

Citation

Zalmat, Alexander; Sotola, Alex; Nice, Chris; Martin, Noland (2021), Genotype and individual data for genetic structure in Louisiana Iris species reveals patterns of recent and historical admixture, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.jm63xsjbm

Abstract

Premise: When divergent lineages come into secondary contact reproductive isolation may be incomplete, thus providing an opportunity to investigate how speciation is manifested in the genome. The Louisiana Irises (Iris, series Hexagonae) comprise a group of three or more ecologically and reproductively divergent lineages that can produce hybrids where they come into contact. In this study we sought to estimate standing genetic variation to understand the current distribution of population structure in the Louisiana Irises.

Methods: We used genotyping-by-sequencing techniques to sample the genomes of Louisiana Iris species across their ranges. Twenty populations were sampled (total n=632) across 11,249 loci. Population genetic data were assessed using ENTROPY and PCA models. 

Results: We discovered evidence for interspecific gene flow in parts of the range and revealed patterns of population structure at odds with widely accepted nominal taxonomy. Undescribed hybrid populations were discovered that were designated as belonging to the I. brevicaulis lineage. Iris nelsonii shared significant ancestry with only one of the purported parent species, I. fulva, evidence inconsistent with a hybrid origin.

Conclusions: This study provides several key findings important to the investigation of standing genetic variation in the Louisiana Iris species complex. Iris brevicaulis has a large amount of genetic diversity within it relative to the other nominal species. In addition, this study has discovered a previously unknown hybrid zone between I. brevicaulis and I. hexagona along the Texas coast. Finally, I. nelsonii does not appear to have mixed ancestry from three parental taxa as has been the longstanding hypothesis.