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The Category-Modifier system: a hierarchical classification scheme for vertebrate tooth marks - supplementary tables

Cite this dataset

Wyenberg-Henzler, Taia (2024). The Category-Modifier system: a hierarchical classification scheme for vertebrate tooth marks - supplementary tables [Dataset]. Dryad. https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.jq2bvq8jf

Abstract

Preserved records of tooth-bone interactions, known as tooth marks, can yield a wealth of information regarding organismal behavior and ecology. For this reason, workers in a wide range of disciplines, but particularly paleontology, have inspected and interpreted these features for decades. Although previous studies have gleaned invaluable insights, they have also described tooth marks using terminological frameworks that have been incompletely defined, have incorporated behavioral hypotheses in definitions, and/or have been inconsistently applied. To address these problems, we introduce the Category-Modifier (CM) system, the first system to both sort tooth marks into clearly defined main categories and use descriptive modifiers to characterize their appearance more precisely. The CM system is designed to apply to a wide range of vertebrates, to enable comparisons across disciplines and studies, and to help researchers keep their investigations into behavioral hypotheses free of circular reasoning.

README: Supplementary tables 1-5

https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.jq2bvq8jf

Supplementary tables containing specimen information and raw measurements for the tooth marks described in the main text.

Description of the data and file structure

Supplementary table 1 contains information on the taxonomic identity, type of element and surface preserving the tooth marks shown in figures, tables and supplementary tables.

Supplementary tables 2 and 3 contains measurements and modifiers for the specimen used in the worked example (Figure 5) as outlined by the Category-Modifier system.

Supplementary tables 4 and 5 contains measurements and modifiers for select examples from the literature shown in Figure 6 as outlined by the Category-Modifier system.

Sharing/Access information

Select examples from the literature were taken from the following sources:

  • Cortés, D., C. De Gracia, J. D. Carrillo-Briceño, G. Aguirre-Fernández, C. Jaramillo, A. Benites-Palomino, and J. E. Atencio-Araúz. 2019: Shark-cetacean trophic interactions during the late Pliocene in the Central Eastern Pacific (Panama). Palaeontologia Electronica 22:1–13.
  • Drumheller, S. K., and C. A. Brochu. 2014: A Diagnosis of Alligator mississippiensis Bite Marks with Comparisons to Existing Crocodylian Datasets. Ichnos 21:131–146.
  • Drumheller, S. K., J. B. McHugh, M. Kane, A. Riedel, and D. C. D’Amore. 2020: High frequencies of theropod bite marks provide evidence for feeding, scavenging, and possible cannibalism in a stressed Late Jurassic ecosystem. PLOS ONE 15:e0233115.
  • D’Amore, D. C., and R. J. Blumensehine. 2009: Komodo monitor (Varanus komodoensis) feeding behavior and dental function reflected through tooth marks on bone surfaces, and the application to ziphodont paleobiology. Paleobiology 35:525–552.
  • D’Amore, D. C., and R. J. Blumenschine. 2012: Using striated tooth marks on bone to predict body size in theropod dinosaurs: a model based on feeding observations of Varanus komodoensis, the Komodo monitor. Paleobiology 38:79–100.
  • Hone, D. W. E., and M. Watabe. 2010: New Information on Scavenging and Selective Feeding Behaviour of Tyrannosaurids. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 55:627–634.
  • Njau, J. K., and R. J. Blumenschine. 2006: A diagnosis of crocodile feeding traces on larger mammal bone, with fossil examples from the Plio-Pleistocene Olduvai Basin, Tanzania. Journal of Human Evolution 50:142–162.
  • Tanke, D. H., and P. J. Currie. 2000: Head-biting behavior in theropod dinosaurs: Paleopathological evidence. Gaia 15:167–184.

Methods

Measurements of tooth marks for UALVP 57561 provided in supplementary tables 2 and 3 were taken from a silicone peel (UALVP 57561.01) using a ruler. 

Measurements and modifiers of all tooth marks from previous studies provided in supplementary tables 4 and 5 were taken from published figures using the software ImageJ with the exception of DEN2-25. Measurements for tooth marks on DEN2-25 (specimen used in D'Amore and Blumenschine 2009, 2012) were obtained from a raw spreadhseet of measurements provided to TWH by D. D'Amore. Modifiers for tooth marks on DEN2-25 (specimen used in D'Amore and Blumenschine 2009, 2012) were obtained by direct examination of the tooth marked element which was sent to TWH by D. D'Amore. 

Funding

Dinosaur Research Institute

Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council, Award: RGPIN-2017-06246

Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council, Award: RGPIN-2023-04916