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Dryad

Heatwave ontogenetic timing impacts on potato crop-pest dynamics

Cite this dataset

Carvajal Acosta, Nalleli et al. (2024). Heatwave ontogenetic timing impacts on potato crop-pest dynamics [Dataset]. Dryad. https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.k3j9kd5h4

Abstract

Heat waves – brief periods of unusually high temperatures­­ – are damaging to agroecosystems and are increasing in frequency and intensity due to climate change. Despite growing appreciation for the threat that heat waves pose pose to agricultural sustainability, we have a poor understanding of what determines their impact on agroecological interactions in the field. Here we report a field experiment that examined how heat waves and their timing interact with crop pest resistance to influence the interactions between potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its most damaging pest, the Colorado potato beetle (CPB; Leptinotarsa decemlineata). We used open-top chambers and ceramic heaters to generate heat wave conditions in field plots with pest-resistant (Atlantic) and -susceptible (King Harry) potato varieties at four CPB developmental stages (neonate, late-larval, pupa, and adult stages). We then assessed CPB performance at larval and adult stages, leaf herbivory, and tuber yield.

README: Heatwave ontogenetic timing impacts on potato crop-pest dynamics

https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.k3j9kd5h4

GENERAL INFORMATION

  1. Title of Dataset: “Heat wave ontogenetic timing impacts on potato crop-pest dynamics”
  2. Author Information

A. Person(s) responsible for collecting the data Name:

Luke Zher, Institution: Michigan State University Address: 288 Farm
Ln, East Lansing, MI 48824 Email:
luke.n.zehr@gmail.com{.email}

Michael Kalwajtys, Institution: Michigan State University Address:
288 Farm Ln, East Lansing, MI 48824 Email:
kalwajty@msu.edu{.email}

B. Principal Investigator Name:

William Wetzel Institution: Montana State University Address: Land
Resources & Environmental Sciences, Bozeman, MT USA. Email:
william.wetzel@montana.edu{.email}
3. Date of data collection (single date, range, approximate date):

June-October 2021
4. Geographic location of data collection:

MSU Kellogg Biological Station, MI, United States
5. Keywords used to describe the data topic:

carry-over effects, Colorado potato beetle, climate change, extreme
weather, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, pest management, plant
resistance, Solanum tuberosum, thermal stress
6. Language information:

English
7. Information about funding sources that supported the collection of
the data:

This project was supported by Agriculture and Food Research
Initiative Competitive Grant no. 2020-67013-31919 from the USDA
National Institute of Food and Agriculture.

DATA & FILE OVERVIEW

  1. For each filename, a short description of what data it contains

"CPB_larval_surveys.csv" contains data for larval count in each plot
after the first two heat waves and the larval length of up to 10
randomly selected CPB larvae.

“CPB_adult_emergence.csv” contains data for CPB adult count and
dates of emergence.

"CPB_adult_mass.csv" contains data for weight and sex of each adult
CPB collected in the field.

"plant_herbivory.csv" contains data for leaf herbivory damage after
the first two heat waves.

"potato_yield.csv" contains data for potato yield (mass and count).

"hobo_all.csv" contains recorded temperatures by 12 hobo devices in
the heat waved and control plots during each of the heat wave
events.
2. Format of the file if not obvious from the file name: comma
separated values, file extension

“.csv”
3. Additional related data collected that was not included in the
current data package:

No
4. Are there multiple versions of the dataset?

No

SHARING/ACCESS INFORMATION

  1. Licenses/restrictions placed on the data:

N/A
2. Links to publications that cite or use the data:

Carvajal-Acosta, et al. In review. Heat wave impacts on crop-pest
dynamics are dependent on insect ontogeny and plant resistance.
Ecosphere.
3. Was data derived from another source?

No
4. Recommended citation for this dataset:

Carvajal Acosta et al. (2024). Heat wave ontogenetic timing impacts
on potato crop-pest dynamics. Dryad, Dataset

METHODOLOGICAL INFORMATION

  1. Description of methods used for collection/generation of data:

CPB larval performance: After each of the first two heat waves
(the neonate- and larval-stages heat waves), we recorded larval
count, length, and instar stage to assess larval survival, growth,
and development. 

CPB adult performance: When the first adults began to emerge,
which corresponded with the end of the 3rd heat wave, we surveyed
plots every other day for six consecutive weeks, and collected and
recorded the number of adult beetles emerged. Adult beetles were
frozen immediately after collection, oven-dried, weighed, and
sexed. 

Leaf herbivory: We estimated leaf herbivory after the 2nd heat
wave event to assess the effects of heat wave timing and plant
resistance on leaf damage. Percent herbivory across the whole plant
was estimated visually following the Primary HerbVar Survey
Protocol. At this time, most larvae had pupated, thus allowing us to
estimate total herbivory by larvae, when most plant tissue is
consumed. 

Potato yield: In the fall, when plants began senescing
aboveground, we dug tubers from each plant, sorted them by plot into
size and quality classes, and measured the mass of marketable
tubers.
2. Methods for processing the data:

"CPB_larval_surveys.csv" to analyze larval development we transposed
this data set from wide to long format using the pivot function in
the tiverse package (R software).

“CPB_adult_emergence.csv” we assess CPB adult development we
transposed this data set from wide to long format using the pivot
function in the tiverse package (R software). We then estimated
developmental rates by first calculating the days CPB took to emerge
from inoculation to emergence, and then log transformed the rate of
emerge (1/days to emergence).

“potato_yield.csv” Marketable potato mass corresponded to class 1
and 2 (coded as C1 and C2 in the data set).

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  1. Instrument- or software-specific information needed to interpret the data:

Microsoft Excel or any other data processing software.
2. Describe any quality-assurance procedures performed on the data:\
All data sets represent raw data collected directly from the field
experiment.
3. People involved with sample collection, processing, analysis and/or
submission: Luke Zher and Michael Kalwajtys were involved in the
data collection. Alma N. Carvajal Acosta processed and analyzed the
data.

I.- DATA-SPECIFIC INFORMATION FOR:

“CPB_larval_surveys.csv”

  1. Number of variables: 26
  2. Number of cases/rows: 260
  3. Variable List:

plotID (unique plot number)

census (indicates the number of census 1 or 2 when the data was
collected)

variety (indicates the potato variety, either the pest resistant
King Harry or -susceptible Atlantic),

heat-wave_tmt (indicates the heat wave tmt/timing assigned to the
plot from control to 4th heat wave),

larval_count (indicates the number of larvae found in each plot)

length_1 (indicates the length in mm of the first randomly selected
larvae)

inst-stg_1 (indicates the instar stage, from 1st-3rd, of the first randomly
selected larvae)

through ....

length_10 (indicates the length in mm of the 10th randomly selected
larvae)

inst-stg_10 (indicates the instar stage, from 1st to 3rd, of the 10th randomly
selected larvae)

notes (any observation regarding the plant or specimen)
4. Missing data codes: NA
5. Specialized formats or other abbreviations used: "NA" indicates not
available, no larvae to measure. instar stage was abreviated as
inst-stg.

II. DATA-SPECIFIC INFORMATION FOR:

"CPB_adult_emergence.csv"

  1. Number of variables: 6
  2. Number of cases/rows: 467
  3. Variable List:

plotID (unique plot number)

inoculation date (date when egg masses were added to the plants)

emergence date (date when the adult specimen was collected)

variety (indicates the potato variety, either the pest resistant
King Harry or -susceptible Atlantic),

heat-wave_tmt (indicates the heat wave tmt/timing assigned to the
plot from control to 4th heat wave)

adult_count (number of adult beetles collected per plot)
4. Missing data codes: NA
5. Specialized formats or other abbreviations used: No

III. DATA-SPECIFIC INFORMATION FOR:

“CPB_adult_mass.csv"

  1. Number of variables: 7
  2. Number of cases/rows: 1583
  3. Variable List:

plotID (unique plot number)

variety (indicates the potato variety, either the pest resistant
King Harry or -susceptible Atlantic),

heat-wave_tmt (indicates the heat wave tmt/timing assigned to the
plot from control to 4th heat wave)

emergence_date (date when the adult specimen was collected)

mass_mg (weight of the specimen in mg)

sex (sex of the specimen)

notes (any observation regarding the specimen)
4. Missing data codes: No
5. Specialized formats or other abbreviations used:

for the sex variable we used "m" for male, "f" for female, NA for
unidentifiable.

IV. DATA-SPECIFIC INFORMATION FOR:

“plant_herbivory.csv"

  1. Number of variables: 7
  2. Number of cases/rows: 1036
  3. Variable List:

plotID (unique plot number)

date (the date the survey was conducted)

survey # (indicate the survey number either 1 or 2)

plantID (unique plant number assigned to a plant in each plot)

variety (indicates the potato variety, either the pest resistant
King Harry or -susceptible Atlantic),

heat-wave_tmt (indicates the heat wave tmt/timing assigned to the
plot from control to 4th heat wave)

herb_perc (estimated percent herbivory for the whole plant)
4. Missing data codes: No
5. Specialized formats or other abbreviations used: No

V. DATA-SPECIFIC INFORMATION FOR:

“potato_yield.csv"

  1. Number of variables: 20
  2. Number of cases/rows: 129
  3. Variable List:

plotID (unique plot number)

variety (indicates the potato variety, either the pest resistant
King Harry or -susceptible Atlantic),

heat-wave_tmt (indicates the heat wave tmt/timing assigned to the
plot from control to 4th heat wave)

date_weight (the date potatoes were weighted)

C1-mass_kg (weight in kg of potatoes in the class 1 category)

C1_count (number of potatoes classified as class 1)

......

C7-mass_kg (weight in kg of potatoes in the class 7 category)

C7_count (number of potatoes classified as class 7)

scab_rating (percent area with scabs)

notes (observation on tuber conditions)
4. Missing data codes: N/A
5. Specialized formats or other abbreviations used: C1 through C7
indicate the class assign to the tubers with C1 indicating class 1
and C7 class 7.

V. DATA-SPECIFIC INFORMATION FOR:

“hobo_all.csv"

  1. Number of variables: 6
  2. Number of cases/rows: 19825
  3. Variable List:

date (indicate the date the temperature was recorded)

temperature (recorded temperature in Celsius)

hobo (unique label assigned to each hobo device)

treatment (indicates whether the device was place in a control or
heat wave plot)

time (time the temperature was recorded in 12 hour time format)

heat-wave_tmt (indicates the heat wave event when the temperatures
were recorded, from heat wave event 1 to heat wave event 4)
4. Missing data codes: N/A
5. Specialized formats or other abbreviations used: HW_1 indicated 1st
heat wave event, HW_2 2nd heat wave event, HW_3 3rd heat wave event,
and HW_4 the 4th heat wave event.

Methods

CPB larval performance: After each of the first two heat waves (the neonate- and larval-stages heat waves), we recorded larval count, length, and instar stage to assess larval survival, growth, and development. 

CPB adult performance: When the first adults began to emerge, which corresponded with the end of the 3rd heat wave, we surveyed plots every other day for six consecutive weeks, and collected and recorded the number of adult beetles emerged. Adult beetles were frozen immediately after collection, oven-dried, weighed, and sexed. 

Leaf herbivory: We estimated leaf herbivory after the 2nd heat wave event to assess the effects of heat wave timing and plant resistance on leaf damage. Percent herbivory across the whole plant was estimated visually following the Primary HerbVar Survey Protocol. At this time, most larvae had pupated, thus allowing us to estimate total herbivory by larvae, when most plant tissue is consumed. 

Potato yield: In the fall, when plants began senescing aboveground, we dug tubers from each plant, sorted them by plot into size and quality classes, and measured the mass of marketable tubers.

Funding

United States Department of Agriculture, Award: 2020-67013-31919, National Institute of Food and Agriculture