Skip to main content
Dryad logo

Data from: Extracting phylogenetic signal and accounting for bias in whole-genome data sets supports the Ctenophora as sister to remaining Metazoa


Borowiec, Marek L.; Lee, Ernest K.; Chiu, Joanna C.; Plachetzki, David C. (2016), Data from: Extracting phylogenetic signal and accounting for bias in whole-genome data sets supports the Ctenophora as sister to remaining Metazoa, Dryad, Dataset,


Background: Understanding the phylogenetic relationships among major lineages of multicellular animals (the Metazoa) is a prerequisite for studying the evolution of complex traits such as nervous systems, muscle tissue, or sensory organs. Transcriptome-based phylogenies have dramatically improved our understanding of metazoan relationships in recent years, although several important questions remain. The branching order near the base of the tree, in particular the placement of the poriferan (sponges, phylum Porifera) and ctenophore (comb jellies, phylum Ctenophora) lineages is one outstanding issue. Recent analyses have suggested that the comb jellies are sister to all remaining metazoan phyla including sponges. This finding is surprising because it suggests that neurons and other complex traits, present in ctenophores and eumetazoans but absent in sponges or placozoans, either evolved twice in Metazoa or were independently, secondarily lost in the lineages leading to sponges and placozoans. Results: To address the question of basal metazoan relationships we assembled a novel dataset comprised of 1080 orthologous loci derived from 36 publicly available genomes representing major lineages of animals. From this large dataset we procured an optimized set of partitions with high phylogenetic signal for resolving metazoan relationships. This optimized data set is amenable to the most appropriate and computationally intensive analyses using site-heterogeneous models of sequence evolution. We also employed several strategies to examine the potential for long-branch attraction to bias our inferences. Our analyses strongly support the Ctenophora as the sister lineage to other Metazoa. We find no support for the traditional view uniting the ctenophores and Cnidaria. Our findings are supported by Bayesian comparisons of topological hypotheses and we find no evidence that they are biased by long-branch attraction. Conclusions: Our study further clarifies relationships among early branching metazoan lineages. Our phylogeny supports the still-controversial position of ctenophores as sister group to all other metazoans. This study also provides a workflow and computational tools for minimizing systematic bias in genome-based phylogenetic analyses. Future studies of metazoan phylogeny will benefit from ongoing efforts to sequence the genomes of additional invertebrate taxa that will continue to inform our view of the relationships among the major lineages of animals.

Usage Notes