For decades, studies have focused on how dispersal and mating systems influence genetic structure across populations or social-groups. However, we still lack a thorough understanding of how these processes and their interaction, shape spatial genetic patterns over a finer-scale (tens – hundreds of metres). Using uniparentally inherited markers may help answer these questions, yet their potential has not been fully explored. Here, we use individual-level simulations to investigate the effects of dispersal and mating system on fine-scale genetic structure at autosomal, mitochondrial and Y chromosome markers. Using genetic spatial autocorrelation analysis, we found that dispersal was the major driver of fine-scale genetic structure across maternally, paternally and biparentally inherited markers. However, when dispersal was restricted (mean distance = 100 m), variation in mating behaviour created strong differences in the comparative level of structure detected at maternally and paternally inherited markers. Promiscuity reduced spatial genetic structure at Y chromosome loci (relative to monogamy), whereas structure increased under polygyny. In contrast, mitochondrial and autosomal markers were robust to differences in the specific mating system, although genetic structure increased across all markers when reproductive success was skewed towards fewer individuals. Comparing males and females at Y chromosome versus mitochondrial markers respectively, revealed that some mating systems can generate similar patterns to those expected under sex-biased dispersal. This demonstrates the need for caution when inferring ecological and behavioural processes from genetic results. Comparing patterns between the sexes, across a range of marker types may help us tease apart the processes shaping fine-scale genetic structure.
Monogamy_F100M100_Autosomal_100Iterations
Autosomal Distance matrices for monogamy simulations, under restricted dispersal. Geographical (GGD) and Genetic (GD) distance matrices are provided for females and males, for 100 simulation iterations (It1-100). Cell A1= # Loci, A2= # Individuals (the remainder of Row #1 can be ignored). Row #3= Individual IDs, Distance matrix data starts in Row #4. The final column = Individual IDs.
Monogamy_F100M100_mtDNA_100Iterations
mtDNA Distance matrices for monogamy simulations, under restricted dispersal. Geographical (GGD) and Genetic (GD) distance matrices are provided for females and males, for 100 simulation iterations (It1-100). Cell A1= # Loci, A2= # Individuals (the remainder of Row #1 can be ignored). Row #3= Individual IDs, Distance matrix data starts in Row #4. The final column = Individual IDs.
Monogamy_F100M100_YChromosome_100Iterations
Y chromosome versus mtDNA distance matrices for monogamy simulations, under restricted dispersal. Geographical (GGD) and Genetic (GD) distance matrices are provided for females and males, for 100 simulation iterations (It1-100). Cell A1= # Loci, A2= # Individuals (the remainder of Row #1 can be ignored). Row #3= Individual IDs, Distance matrix data starts in Row #4. The final column = Individual IDs.
Monogamy_F100M500_Autosomal_100Iterations
Autosomal distance matrices for monogamy simulations, under male-biased dispersal. Geographical (GGD) and Genetic (GD) distance matrices are provided for females and males, for 100 simulation iterations (It1-100). Cell A1= # Loci, A2= # Individuals (the remainder of Row #1 can be ignored). Row #3= Individual IDs, Distance matrix data starts in Row #4. The final column = Individual IDs.
Monogamy_F100M500_mtDNA_100Iterations
mtDNA distance matrices for monogamy simulations, under male-biased dispersal. Geographical (GGD) and Genetic (GD) distance matrices are provided for females and males, for 100 simulation iterations (It1-100). Cell A1= # Loci, A2= # Individuals (the remainder of Row #1 can be ignored). Row #3= Individual IDs, Distance matrix data starts in Row #4. The final column = Individual IDs.
Monogamy_F100M500_YChromosome_100Iterations
Monogamy_F500M500_Autosomal_100Iterations
Autosomal distance matrices for monogamy simulations, under high dispersal. Geographical (GGD) and Genetic (GD) distance matrices are provided for females and males, for 100 simulation iterations (It1-100). Cell A1= # Loci, A2= # Individuals (the remainder of Row #1 can be ignored). Row #3= Individual IDs, Distance matrix data starts in Row #4. The final column = Individual IDs.
Monogamy_F500M500_mtDNA_100Iterations
mtDNA distance matrices for monogamy simulations, under high dispersal. Geographical (GGD) and Genetic (GD) distance matrices are provided for females and males, for 100 simulation iterations (It1-100). Cell A1= # Loci, A2= # Individuals (the remainder of Row #1 can be ignored). Row #3= Individual IDs, Distance matrix data starts in Row #4. The final column = Individual IDs.
Monogamy_F500M500_YChromosome_100Iterations
Y chromosome versus mtDNA distance matrices for monogamy simulations, under high dispersal. Geographical (GGD) and Genetic (GD) distance matrices are provided for females and males, for 100 simulation iterations (It1-100). Cell A1= # Loci, A2= # Individuals (the remainder of Row #1 can be ignored). Row #3= Individual IDs, Distance matrix data starts in Row #4. The final column = Individual IDs.
Polygyny_F100M100_Autosomal_100Iterations
Autosomal distance matrices for polygyny simulations, under restricted dispersal. Geographical (GGD) and Genetic (GD) distance matrices are provided for females and males, for 100 simulation iterations (It1-100). Cell A1= # Loci, A2= # Individuals (the remainder of Row #1 can be ignored). Row #3= Individual IDs, Distance matrix data starts in Row #4. The final column = Individual IDs.
Polygyny_F100M100_mtDNA_100Iterations
mtDNA distance matrices for polygyny simulations, under restricted dispersal. Geographical (GGD) and Genetic (GD) distance matrices are provided for females and males, for 100 simulation iterations (It1-100). Cell A1= # Loci, A2= # Individuals (the remainder of Row #1 can be ignored). Row #3= Individual IDs, Distance matrix data starts in Row #4. The final column = Individual IDs.
Polygyny_F100M100_YChromosome_100Iterations
Y chromosome versus mtDNA distance matrices for polygyny simulations, under restricted dispersal. Geographical (GGD) and Genetic (GD) distance matrices are provided for females and males, for 100 simulation iterations (It1-100). Cell A1= # Loci, A2= # Individuals (the remainder of Row #1 can be ignored). Row #3= Individual IDs, Distance matrix data starts in Row #4. The final column = Individual IDs.
Polygyny_F100M500_Autosomal_100Iterations
Autosomal distance matrices for polygyny simulations, under male-biased dispersal. Geographical (GGD) and Genetic (GD) distance matrices are provided for females and males, for 100 simulation iterations (It1-100). Cell A1= # Loci, A2= # Individuals (the remainder of Row #1 can be ignored). Row #3= Individual IDs, Distance matrix data starts in Row #4. The final column = Individual IDs.
Polygyny_F100M500_mtDNA_100Iterations
mtDNA distance matrices for polygyny simulations, under male-biased dispersal. Geographical (GGD) and Genetic (GD) distance matrices are provided for females and males, for 100 simulation iterations (It1-100). Cell A1= # Loci, A2= # Individuals (the remainder of Row #1 can be ignored). Row #3= Individual IDs, Distance matrix data starts in Row #4. The final column = Individual IDs.
Polygyny_F100M500_YChromosome_100Iterations
Y chromosome versus mtDNA distance matrices for polygyny simulations, under male-biased dispersal. Geographical (GGD) and Genetic (GD) distance matrices are provided for females and males, for 100 simulation iterations (It1-100). Cell A1= # Loci, A2= # Individuals (the remainder of Row #1 can be ignored). Row #3= Individual IDs, Distance matrix data starts in Row #4. The final column = Individual IDs.
Polygyny_F500M500_Autosomal_100Iterations
Autosomal distance matrices for polygyny simulations, under high dispersal. Geographical (GGD) and Genetic (GD) distance matrices are provided for females and males, for 100 simulation iterations (It1-100). Cell A1= # Loci, A2= # Individuals (the remainder of Row #1 can be ignored). Row #3= Individual IDs, Distance matrix data starts in Row #4. The final column = Individual IDs.
Polygyny_F500M500_mtDNA_100Iterations
mtDNA distance matrices for polygyny simulations, under high dispersal. Geographical (GGD) and Genetic (GD) distance matrices are provided for females and males, for 100 simulation iterations (It1-100). Cell A1= # Loci, A2= # Individuals (the remainder of Row #1 can be ignored). Row #3= Individual IDs, Distance matrix data starts in Row #4. The final column = Individual IDs.
Polygyny_F500M500_YChromosome_100Iterations
Y chromosome versus mtDNA distance matrices for polygyny simulations, under high dispersal. Geographical (GGD) and Genetic (GD) distance matrices are provided for females and males, for 100 simulation iterations (It1-100). Cell A1= # Loci, A2= # Individuals (the remainder of Row #1 can be ignored). Row #3= Individual IDs, Distance matrix data starts in Row #4. The final column = Individual IDs.
Promiscuity_L3_F100M100_Autosomal_100Iterations
Autosomal distance matrices for promiscuity (L3) simulations, under restricted dispersal. Geographical (GGD) and Genetic (GD) distance matrices are provided for females and males, for 100 simulation iterations (It1-100). Cell A1= # Loci, A2= # Individuals (the remainder of Row #1 can be ignored). Row #3= Individual IDs, Distance matrix data starts in Row #4. The final column = Individual IDs.
Promiscuity_L3_F100M100_mtDNA_100Iterations
mtDNA distance matrices for promiscuity (L3) simulations, under restricted dispersal. Geographical (GGD) and Genetic (GD) distance matrices are provided for females and males, for 100 simulation iterations (It1-100). Cell A1= # Loci, A2= # Individuals (the remainder of Row #1 can be ignored). Row #3= Individual IDs, Distance matrix data starts in Row #4. The final column = Individual IDs.
Promiscuity_L3_F100M100_YChromosome_100Iterations
Y chromosome versus mtDNA distance matrices for promiscuity (L3) simulations, under restricted dispersal. Geographical (GGD) and Genetic (GD) distance matrices are provided for females and males, for 100 simulation iterations (It1-100). Cell A1= # Loci, A2= # Individuals (the remainder of Row #1 can be ignored). Row #3= Individual IDs, Distance matrix data starts in Row #4. The final column = Individual IDs.
Promiscuity_L3_F100M500_Autosomal_100Iterations
Autosomal distance matrices for promiscuity (L3) simulations, under male-biased dispersal. Geographical (GGD) and Genetic (GD) distance matrices are provided for females and males, for 100 simulation iterations (It1-100). Cell A1= # Loci, A2= # Individuals (the remainder of Row #1 can be ignored). Row #3= Individual IDs, Distance matrix data starts in Row #4. The final column = Individual IDs.
Promiscuity_L3_F100M500_mtDNA_100Iterations
mtDNA distance matrices for promiscuity (L3) simulations, under male-biased dispersal. Geographical (GGD) and Genetic (GD) distance matrices are provided for females and males, for 100 simulation iterations (It1-100). Cell A1= # Loci, A2= # Individuals (the remainder of Row #1 can be ignored). Row #3= Individual IDs, Distance matrix data starts in Row #4. The final column = Individual IDs.
Promiscuity_L3_F100M500_YChromosome_100Iterations
Y chromosome versus mtDNA distance matrices for promiscuity (L3) simulations, under male-biased dispersal. Geographical (GGD) and Genetic (GD) distance matrices are provided for females and males, for 100 simulation iterations (It1-100). Cell A1= # Loci, A2= # Individuals (the remainder of Row #1 can be ignored). Row #3= Individual IDs, Distance matrix data starts in Row #4. The final column = Individual IDs.
Promiscuity_L3_F500M500_Autosomal_100Iterations
Autosomal distance matrices for promiscuity (L3) simulations, under high dispersal. Geographical (GGD) and Genetic (GD) distance matrices are provided for females and males, for 100 simulation iterations (It1-100). Cell A1= # Loci, A2= # Individuals (the remainder of Row #1 can be ignored). Row #3= Individual IDs, Distance matrix data starts in Row #4. The final column = Individual IDs.
Promiscuity_L3_F500M500_YChromosome_100Iterations
Y chromosome versus mtDNA distance matrices for promiscuity (L3) simulations, under high dispersal. Geographical (GGD) and Genetic (GD) distance matrices are provided for females and males, for 100 simulation iterations (It1-100). Cell A1= # Loci, A2= # Individuals (the remainder of Row #1 can be ignored). Row #3= Individual IDs, Distance matrix data starts in Row #4. The final column = Individual IDs.
Promiscuity_L3_F500M500_mtDNA_100Iterations
mtDNA distance matrices for promiscuity (L3) simulations, under high dispersal. Geographical (GGD) and Genetic (GD) distance matrices are provided for females and males, for 100 simulation iterations (It1-100). Cell A1= # Loci, A2= # Individuals (the remainder of Row #1 can be ignored). Row #3= Individual IDs, Distance matrix data starts in Row #4. The final column = Individual IDs.
Promiscuity_L8_F100M100_Autosomal_100Iterations
Autosomal distance matrices for promiscuity (L8) simulations, under restricted dispersal. Geographical (GGD) and Genetic (GD) distance matrices are provided for females and males, for 100 simulation iterations (It1-100). Cell A1= # Loci, A2= # Individuals (the remainder of Row #1 can be ignored). Row #3= Individual IDs, Distance matrix data starts in Row #4. The final column = Individual IDs.
Promiscuity_L8_F100M100_mtDNA_100Iterations
mtDNA distance matrices for promiscuity (L8) simulations, under restricted dispersal. Geographical (GGD) and Genetic (GD) distance matrices are provided for females and males, for 100 simulation iterations (It1-100). Cell A1= # Loci, A2= # Individuals (the remainder of Row #1 can be ignored). Row #3= Individual IDs, Distance matrix data starts in Row #4. The final column = Individual IDs.
Promiscuity_L8_F100M100_YChromosome_100Iterations
Y chromosome versus mtDNA distance matrices for promiscuity (L8) simulations, under restricted dispersal. Geographical (GGD) and Genetic (GD) distance matrices are provided for females and males, for 100 simulation iterations (It1-100). Cell A1= # Loci, A2= # Individuals (the remainder of Row #1 can be ignored). Row #3= Individual IDs, Distance matrix data starts in Row #4. The final column = Individual IDs.
Promiscuity_L8_F100M500_Autosomal_100Iterations
Autosomal distance matrices for promiscuity (L8) simulations, under male-biased dispersal. Geographical (GGD) and Genetic (GD) distance matrices are provided for females and males, for 100 simulation iterations (It1-100). Cell A1= # Loci, A2= # Individuals (the remainder of Row #1 can be ignored). Row #3= Individual IDs, Distance matrix data starts in Row #4. The final column = Individual IDs.
Promiscuity_L8_F100M500_mtDNA_100Iterations
mtDNA distance matrices for promiscuity (L8) simulations, under male-biased dispersal. Geographical (GGD) and Genetic (GD) distance matrices are provided for females and males, for 100 simulation iterations (It1-100). Cell A1= # Loci, A2= # Individuals (the remainder of Row #1 can be ignored). Row #3= Individual IDs, Distance matrix data starts in Row #4. The final column = Individual IDs.
Promiscuity_L8_F100M500_YChromosome_100Iterations
Y chromosome versus mtDNA distance matrices for promiscuity (L8) simulations, under male-biased dispersal. Geographical (GGD) and Genetic (GD) distance matrices are provided for females and males, for 100 simulation iterations (It1-100). Cell A1= # Loci, A2= # Individuals (the remainder of Row #1 can be ignored). Row #3= Individual IDs, Distance matrix data starts in Row #4. The final column = Individual IDs.
Promiscuity_L8_F500M500_Autosomal_100Iterations
Autosomal distance matrices for promiscuity (L8) simulations, under high dispersal. Geographical (GGD) and Genetic (GD) distance matrices are provided for females and males, for 100 simulation iterations (It1-100). Cell A1= # Loci, A2= # Individuals (the remainder of Row #1 can be ignored). Row #3= Individual IDs, Distance matrix data starts in Row #4. The final column = Individual IDs.
Promiscuity_L8_F500M500_mtDNA_100Iterations
mtDNA distance matrices for promiscuity (L8) simulations, under high dispersal. Geographical (GGD) and Genetic (GD) distance matrices are provided for females and males, for 100 simulation iterations (It1-100). Cell A1= # Loci, A2= # Individuals (the remainder of Row #1 can be ignored). Row #3= Individual IDs, Distance matrix data starts in Row #4. The final column = Individual IDs.
Promiscuity_L8_F500M500_YChromosome_100Iterations
Y chromosome versus mtDNA distance matrices for promiscuity (L8) simulations, under high dispersal. Geographical (GGD) and Genetic (GD) distance matrices are provided for females and males, for 100 simulation iterations (It1-100). Cell A1= # Loci, A2= # Individuals (the remainder of Row #1 can be ignored). Row #3= Individual IDs, Distance matrix data starts in Row #4. The final column = Individual IDs.
Monogamy_F100M500_YChromosome_100Iterations
Y chromosome versus mtDNA distance matrices for monogamy simulations, under male-biased dispersal. Geographical (GGD) and Genetic (GD) distance matrices are provided for females and males, for 100 simulation iterations (It1-100). Cell A1= # Loci, A2= # Individuals (the remainder of Row #1 can be ignored). Row #3= Individual IDs, Distance matrix data starts in Row #4. The final column = Individual IDs.
GenAlEx Sim
The GenAlEx Simulations are written in Visual Basic for Applications and can only be run within Excel 2010 - 32 bit, on a PC with the additional supporting package ZRandom. A copy of the GenAlEx Add-in containing the simulation routines, along with ZRandom, a read me file and an overview on how to run the simulations is provided. Academics with VBA programming experience who wish to see the full VBA code are invited to contact Rod Peakall (rod.peakall@anu.edu.au) who is willing to provide access to the code which is otherwise password protected for macro security purposes.