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Data from: Temporal patterns of diversification in Brassicaceae demonstrate decoupling of rate shifts and mesopolyploidization events

Citation

Koch, Marcus A.; German, Dimitry A.; Huang, Xiao-Chen (2019), Data from: Temporal patterns of diversification in Brassicaceae demonstrate decoupling of rate shifts and mesopolyploidization events, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.kr4rf80

Abstract

Background and Aims Whole-genome duplication (WGD) events are considered important driving forces of diversification. At least 11 out of 52 Brassicaceae tribes had independent mesopolyploid WGDs followed by diploidization processes. However, the association between mesopolyploidy and subsequent diversification is equivocal. Herein we show the results from a family-wide diversification analysis on Brassicaceae, and elaborate on the hypothesis that polyploidization per se is a fundamental driver in Brassicaceae evolution. Methods We established a time-calibrated chronogram based on whole plastid genomes comprising representative Brassicaceae taxa and published data spanning the entire Rosidae clade. This allowed to set multiple calibration points and anchored various Brassicaceae taxa for subsequent downstream analyses. All major splits among Brassicaceae lineages were used in BEAST analyses of individually analysed 48 tribes comprising 2101 taxa in total using the internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Diversification patterns were investigated on these tribe-wide chronograms using BAMM and were compared with family-wide data on genome size variation and species richness. Key results Brassicaceae diverged 29.9 Mya during the Oligocene, and the majority of tribes started diversification in the Miocene with an average crown group age of about 12.5 Mya. This matches the cooling phase right after the Mid Miocene climatic optimum. Significant rate shifts were detected in 12 out of 52 tribes during the Mio- and Pliocene, decoupled from preceding mesopolyploid WGDs. Among the various factors analysed the combined effect of tribal crown group age and net diversification rate (speciation minus extinction) is likely to explain sufficiently species richness across Brassicaceae tribes. Conclusions The onset of the evolutionary splits among tribes took place under cooler and drier conditions. Pleistocene glacial cycles may have contributed to the maintenance of high diversification rates. Rate shifts are not consistently associated with mesopolyploid WGD. We propose, therefore, that WGDs in general serve as a constant "pump" for continuous and high species diversification.

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