# Data from: Microclimate predicts within-season distribution dynamics of montane forest birds

Frey, Sarah J. K.

Hadley, Adam S.

Betts, Matthew G.

Published Sep 23, 2016 on Dryad.
https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m35k6

## Cite this dataset

Frey, Sarah J. K.; Hadley, Adam S.; Betts, Matthew G. (2016). Data from: Microclimate predicts within-season distribution dynamics of montane forest birds [Dataset]. Dryad. https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m35k6

## Abstract

Aim
Climate changes are anticipated to have pervasive negative effects on biodiversity and are expected to necessitate widespread range shifts or contractions. Such projections are based upon the assumptions that (1) species respond primarily to broad-scale climatic regimes, or (2) that variation in climate at fine spatial scales is less relevant at coarse spatial scales. However, in montane forest landscapes, high degrees of microclimate variability could influence occupancy dynamics and distributions of forest species. Using high-resolution bird survey and under-canopy air temperature data, we tested the hypothesis that the high vagility of most forest bird species combined with the heterogeneous thermal regime of mountain landscapes would enable them to adjust initial settlement decisions to track their thermal niches.
Location
Western Cascade Mountains, Oregon, USA.
Methods
We used dynamic occupancy models to test the degree to which microclimate affects the distribution patterns of forest birds in a heterogeneous mountain environment. In all models we statistically accounted for vegetation structure, vegetation composition and potential biases due to imperfect detection of birds. We generated spatial predictions of forest bird distributions in relation to microclimate and vegetation structure.
Results
Fine-scale temperature metrics were strong predictors of bird distributions; effects of temperature on within-season occupancy dynamics were as large or larger (1–1.7 times) than vegetation effects. Most species (86.7%) exhibited apparent within-season occupancy dynamics. However, species were almost as likely to be warm associated (i.e., apparent settlement at warmer sites and/or vacancy at cooler sites; 53.3% of species) as cool associated (i.e., apparent settlement at cooler sites and/or vacancy at warmer sites; 46.7% of species), suggesting that microclimate preferences are species specific.
Main conclusions
High-resolution temperature data increase the quality of predictions about avian distribution dynamics and should be included in efforts to project future distributions. We hypothesize that microclimate-associated distribution patterns may reflect species' potential for behavioural buffering from climate change in montane forest environments.

## Usage notes

#### ModelSel_BRCR_2012_DynamicAll

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for brown creeper 2012 for all models combined. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_BRCR_2013_DynamicAll

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for brown creeper 2013 for all models combined. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_CBCH_2012_DynamicAll

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for chestnut-backed chickadee 2012 for all models combined. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_CBCH_2013_DynamicAll

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for chestnut-backed chickadee 2013 for all models combined. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_GCKI_2012_DynamicAll

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for golden-crowned kinglet 2012 for all models combined. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_GCKI_2013_DynamicAll

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for golden-crowned kinglet 2013 for all models combined. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_HAFL_2012_DynamicAll

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Hammond's flycatcher 2012 for all models combined. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_HAFL_2013_DynamicAll

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Hammond's flycatcher 2013 for all models combined. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_HEWA_2012_DynamicAll

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for hermit warbler 2012 for all models combined. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_HEWA_2013_DynamicAll

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for hermit warbler 2013 for all models combined. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_ORJU_2012_DynamicAll

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for dark-eyed (Oregon) junco 2012 for all models combined. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_ORJU_2013_DynamicAll

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for dark-eyed (Oregon) junco 2013 for all models combined. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_PAWR_2012_DynamicAll

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Pacific wren 2012 for all models combined. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_PAWR_2013_DynamicAll

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Pacific wren 2013 for all models combined. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_PSFL_2012_DynamicAll

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Pacific-slope flycatcher 2012 for all models combined. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_PSFL_2013_DynamicAll

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Pacific-slope flycatcher 2013 for all models combined. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_RBNU_2012_DynamicAll

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for red-breasted nuthatch 2012 for all models combined. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_RBNU_2013_DynamicAll

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for red-breasted nuthatch 2013 for all models combined. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_STJA_2012_DynamicAll

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Steller's jay 2012 for all models combined. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_STJA_2013_DynamicAll

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Steller's jay 2013 for all models combined. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_SWTH_2012_DynamicAll

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Swainson's thrush 2012 for all models combined. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_SWTH_2013_DynamicAll

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Swainson's thrush 2013 for all models combined. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_VATH_2012_DynamicAll

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for varied thrush 2012 for all models combined. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_VATH_2013_DynamicAll

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for varied thrush 2013 for all models combined. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_WETA_2012_DynamicAll

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for western tanager 2012 for all models combined. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_WETA_2013_DynamicAll

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for western tanager 2013 for all models combined. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_WIWA_2012_DynamicAll

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Wilson's warbler 2012 for all models combined. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_WIWA_2013_DynamicAll

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Wilson's warbler 2013 for all models combined. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_BRCR_2012_Detection

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for brown creeper 2012 for all detection models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_BRCR_2013_Detection

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for brown creeper 2013 for all detection models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_CBCH_2012_Detection

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for chestnut-backed chickadee 2012 for all detection models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_CBCH_2013_Detection

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for chestnut-backed chickadee 2013 for all detection models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_GCKI_2012_Detection

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for golden-crowned kinglet 2012 for all detection models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_GCKI_2013_Detection

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for golden-crowned kinglet 2013 for all detection models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_HAFL_2012_Detection

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Hammond's flycatcher 2012 for all detection models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_HAFL_2013_Detection

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Hammond's flycatcher 2013 for all detection models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_HETH_2012_Detection

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for hermit thrush 2012 for all detection models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_HETH_2013_Detection

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for hermit thrush 2013 for all detection models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_HEWA_2012_Detection

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for hermit warbler 2012 for all detection models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_HEWA_2013_Detection

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for hermit warbler 2013 for all detection models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_ORJU_2012_Detection

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for dark-eyed (Oregon) junco 2012 for all detection models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_ORJU_2013_Detection

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for dark-eyed (Oregon) junco 2013 for all detection models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_PAWR_2012_Detection

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Pacific wren 2012 for all detection models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_PAWR_2013_Detection

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Pacific wren 2013 for all detection models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_PSFL_2012_Detection

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Pacific-slope flycatcher 2012 for all detection models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_PSFL_2013_Detection

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Pacific-slope flycatcher 2013 for all detection models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_RBNU_2012_Detection

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for red-breasted nuthatch 2012 for all detection models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_RBNU_2013_Detection

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for red-breasted nuthatch 2013 for all detection models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_STJA_2012_Detection

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Steller's jay 2012 for all detection models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_STJA_2013_Detection

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Steller's jay 2013 for all detection models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_SWTH_2012_Detection

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Swainson's thrush 2012 for all detection models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_SWTH_2013_Detection

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Swainson's thrush 2013 for all detection models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_VATH_2012_Detection

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for varied thrush 2012 for all detection models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_VATH_2013_Detection

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for varied thrush 2013 for all detection models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_WETA_2012_Detection

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for western tanager 2012 for all detection models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_WETA_2013_Detection

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for western tanager 2013 for all detection models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_WIWA_2012_Detection

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Wilson's warbler 2012 for all detection models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_WIWA_2013_Detection

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Wilson's warbler 2013 for all detection models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_BRCR_2012_Occupancy

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for brown creeper 2012 for all initial occupancy models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_BRCR_2013_Occupancy

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for brown creeper 2013 for all initial occupancy models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_CBCH_2012_Occupancy

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for chestnut-backed chickadee 2012 for all initial occupancy models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_CBCH_2013_Occupancy

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for chestnut-backed chickadee 2013 for all initial occupancy models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_GCKI_2012_Occupancy

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for golden-crowned kinglet 2012 for all initial occupancy models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_GCKI_2013_Occupancy

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for golden-crowned kinglet 2013 for all initial occupancy models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_HAFL_2012_Occupancy

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Hammond’s flycatcher 2012 for all initial occupancy models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_HAFL_2013_Occupancy

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Hammond’s flycatcher 2013 for all initial occupancy models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_HETH_2012_Occupancy

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for hermit thrush 2012 for all initial occupancy models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_HETH_2013_Occupancy

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for hermit thrush 2013 for all initial occupancy models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_HEWA_2012_Occupancy

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for hermit warbler 2012 for all initial occupancy models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_HEWA_2013_Occupancy

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for hermit warbler 2013 for all initial occupancy models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_ORJU_2012_Occupancy

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for dark-eyed (Oregon) junco 2012 for all initial occupancy models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_ORJU_2013_Occupancy

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for dark-eyed (Oregon) junco 2013 for all initial occupancy models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_PAWR_2012_Occupancy

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Pacific wren 2012 for all initial occupancy models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_PAWR_2013_Occupancy

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Pacific wren 2013 for all initial occupancy models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_PSFL_2012_Occupancy

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Pacific-slope flycatcher 2012 for all initial occupancy models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_PSFL_2013_Occupancy

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Pacific-slope flycatcher 2013 for all initial occupancy models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_RBNU_2012_Occupancy

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for red-breasted nuthatch 2012 for all initial occupancy models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_RBNU_2013_Occupancy

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for red-breasted nuthatch 2013 for all initial occupancy models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_STJA_2012_Occupancy

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Steller’s jay 2012 for all initial occupancy models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_STJA_2013_Occupancy

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Steller’s jay 2013 for all initial occupancy models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_SWTH_2012_Occupancy

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Swainson’s thrush 2012 for all initial occupancy models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_SWTH_2013_Occupancy

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Swainson’s thrush 2013 for all initial occupancy models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_VATH_2012_Occupancy

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for varied thrush 2012 for all initial occupancy models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_VATH_2013_Occupancy

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for varied thrush 2013 for all initial occupancy models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_WETA_2012_Occupancy

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for western tanager 2012 for all initial occupancy models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_WETA_2013_Occupancy

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for western tanager 2013 for all initial occupancy models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_WIWA_2012_Occupancy

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Wilson's warbler 2012 for all initial occupancy models. Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_BRCR_2012_Dynamic

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for brown creeper 2012 for dynamic models (colonization and extinction). Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_BRCR_2013_Dynamic

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for brown creeper 2013 for dynamic models (colonization and extinction). Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_CBCH_2012_Dynamic

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for chestnut-backed chickadee 2012 for dynamic models (colonization and extinction). Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_CBCH_2013_Dynamic

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for chestnut-backed chickadee 2013 for dynamic models (colonization and extinction). Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_GCKI_2012_Dynamic

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for golden-crowned kinglet 2012 for dynamic models (colonization and extinction). Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_GCKI_2013_Dynamic

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for golden-crowned kinglet 2013 for dynamic models (colonization and extinction). Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_HAFL_2012_Dynamic

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Hammond’s flycatcher 2012 for dynamic models (colonization and extinction). Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_HAFL_2013_Dynamic

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Hammond’s flycatcher 2013 for dynamic models (colonization and extinction). Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_HETH_2012_Dynamic

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for hermit thrush 2012 for dynamic models (colonization and extinction). Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_HETH_2013_Dynamic

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for hermit thrush 2013 for dynamic models (colonization and extinction). Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_HEWA_2012_Dynamic

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for hermit warbler 2012 for dynamic models (colonization and extinction). Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_HEWA_2013_Dynamic

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for hermit warbler 2013 for dynamic models (colonization and extinction). Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_ORJU_2012_Dynamic

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for dark-eyed (Oregon) junco 2012 for dynamic models (colonization and extinction). Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_ORJU_2013_Dynamic

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for dark-eyed (Oregon) junco 2013 for dynamic models (colonization and extinction). Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_PAWR_2012_Dynamic

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Pacific wren 2012 for dynamic models (colonization and extinction). Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_PAWR_2013_Dynamic

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Pacific wren 2013 for dynamic models (colonization and extinction). Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_PSFL_2012_Dynamic

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Pacific-slope flycatcher 2012 for dynamic models (colonization and extinction). Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_PSFL_2013_Dynamic

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Pacific-slope flycatcher 2013 for dynamic models (colonization and extinction). Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_RBNU_2012_Dynamic

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for red-breasted nuthatch 2012 for dynamic models (colonization and extinction). Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_RBNU_2013_Dynamic

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for red-breasted nuthatch 2013 for dynamic models (colonization and extinction). Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_STJA_2012_Dynamic

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Steller’s jay 2012 for dynamic models (colonization and extinction). Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_STJA_2013_Dynamic

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Steller’s jay 2013 for dynamic models (colonization and extinction). Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_SWTH_2012_Dynamic

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Swainson’s thrush 2012 for dynamic models (colonization and extinction). Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_SWTH_2013_Dynamic

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Swainson’s thrush 2013 for dynamic models (colonization and extinction). Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_VATH_2012_Dynamic

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for varied thrush 2012 for dynamic models (colonization and extinction). Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_VATH_2013_Dynamic

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for varied thrush 2013 for dynamic models (colonization and extinction). Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_WETA_2012_Dynamic

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for western tanager 2012 for dynamic models (colonization and extinction). Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_WETA_2013_Dynamic

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for western tanager 2013 for dynamic models (colonization and extinction). Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_WIWA_2012_Dynamic

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Wilson’s warbler 2012 for dynamic models (colonization and extinction). Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

#### ModelSel_WIWA_2013_Dynamic

AIC model selection table and associated coefficients for Wilson’s warbler 2013 for dynamic models (colonization and extinction). Column names for the model coefficients use the following notation: coefficient = parameter(covariate) and standard error = SEparameter(covariate). Parameter abbreviations are p = detection probability, psi = initial occupancy, col = colonization/settlement, ext = extinction/vacancy. Parameter(Int) refers to the intercept. ‘nPars’ is the number of parameters estimated in the model. Each model is ranked by its AIC score, which represents how well the model fits the data. A lower ∆AIC (delta) value is indicative of a better model. The probability that the model (of the models tested) would best explain the data is indicated by AICwt.

## Funding

National Science Foundation, Award: DEB-0823380

## Location

HJ Andrews Experimental Forest