Disentangling the influence of water limitation and simultaneous above and belowground herbivory on plant tolerance and resistance to stress
Mundim, Fabiane; Vieira-Neto, Ernane; Alborn, Hans; Bruna, Emilio (2021), Disentangling the influence of water limitation and simultaneous above and belowground herbivory on plant tolerance and resistance to stress, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m905qfv18
1. Plants face multiple biotic and abiotic stressors simultaneously. Many species can tolerate and resist stress, but countermeasures differ between roots and leaves. Since herbivores and environmental conditions modulate costs and benefits of plant defense traits, stress responses are context-dependent. We examined whole-plant tolerance and resistance responses to individual and combined effects of above and belowground herbivory under variable water conditions.
2. We manipulated water availability and access by two common herbivores (Spodoptera exigua caterpillars and Meloidogyne incognita nematodes) to Solanum lycocarpum. Plants were either watered based on historical regional averages or the 30% reduction predicted by IPCC studies. Herbivory treatments included isolated above (AG) and belowground (BG) attacks, simultaneous (AGBG) attacks, and no-herbivory controls. We then parameterized generalized linear mixed-effects models with data on plant survival, leaf and root biomass accumulation, root complexity and terpenoid concentration.
3. Foliar herbivory increased terpenoid concentrations in roots relative to no-herbivory plants under control water but decreased in both roots and leaves under drought. Similarly, root feeders increased concentrations of terpenoids in leaves under control water but decreased concentrations only in roots under drought. Plants challenged with AGBG herbivory had greater whole-plant biomass (i.e., tolerance) and lower total concentrations of defensive compounds (i.e., resistance) than plants exposed to no-herbivore controls, regardless of water conditions. Importantly, the capacity of plants to grow or produce terpenoids changes when herbivory level is considered. In plants exposed to AGBG herbivory, greater nematode infection was related to decreases in whole-plant biomass and marginal increases in total terpenoid concentration. Ultimately, accounting only for individual AG and BG responses would have led to different conclusions and underestimated the magnitude of S. lycocarpum’s compensatory responses. A “whole-plant” approach revealed that belowground herbivory is the primary driver of tolerance in plants surviving moderate water stress.
4. Synthesis. Whole-plant responses to stress in variable environments are complex, and their comprehensive understanding requires accounting for belowground herbivores and root responses.
The experiment was conducted in a shadehouse at the city of Uberlandia, MG, Brazil. The experiment was conducted by the first author as part of her PhD thesis and therefore the data was collected, processed and analyzed by her. This data set is the raw data transcript from field and lab notes to excel file.
The data have not been processed, therefore all the analyzes process (e.g., transformation to square root) was done direct in R.
Note that the control data for root length and architecture, as well as leaf and root dry biomass and terpenoid concentration (non-herbivory, AG herbivory and BG herbivory under control water) were originally presented in Mundim et al. (2017).
|replicate||plant replicate number of each treatment|
|Sample||name given when to the original sample at the shadehouse (same number represent the same plant)|
|treat.water||treatment of water. D = drought; C = control|
|treat.herb||treatment of herbivory. X= no herbivory; AG = caterpillar; BG = nematode; AGBG = both (simultaneous herbivory)|
|treat||treatments of water and herbivory together, in order as the graph.*|
|plant.part||plant part the data refer to. L = leaf; R=root|
|roots.complex||root spread (measured at the end of the study) using the method centripetal link-based ordering system|
|length.roots.final||root total length account at the end of the study|
|total.days.alive||total number of days alive|
|dry.weight||final dry weight (L or R) (in grams)|
|dry.weight.whole.plant||final total plant dry weight (Leaf, root and stem) (in grams)|
|terpenoid||terpenoid concentration (μmol/g dry mass) in Leaf or Root|
|total.terpenoid||terpenoic concentration of leaf + root (μmol/g dry mass)|
|herb.perct||leaf damage cumulative leftover (summed percentage of caterpillar herbivory over time)|
|nemat.galls||total number of nematode galls at the end of the study|
|Ngall.per.Rootdw||amount of nematode infection (number of galls per dry weight (g) of roots)|
*CX = control water and no-herbivory
DX = drought and no-herbivory
CAG= control water and caterpillar
DAG = drought and caterpillar
CBG = control water and nematode
DBG = drought and nematodes
CABG= control water and both herbivory
DABG = drought and both herbivory)
|NA = no data or not applicable|
|0 = biological zero|
Ciência sem Fronteiras, Award: 237960/2012-5
Ciência sem Fronteiras, Award: 202012/2012-3
Ciência sem Fronteiras, Award: 061/2012