Data from: The pupillary orienting response predicts adaptive behavioral adjustment after errors
Murphy, Peter R.; van Moort, Marianne; Nieuwenhuis, Sander; van Moort, Marianne L. (2017), Data from: The pupillary orienting response predicts adaptive behavioral adjustment after errors, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.mj0k3
Reaction time (RT) is commonly observed to slow down after an error. This post-error slowing (PES) has been thought to arise from the strategic adoption of a more cautious response mode following deployment of cognitive control. Recently, an alternative account has suggested that PES results from interference due to an error-evoked orienting response. We investigated whether error-related orienting may in fact be a pre-cursor to adaptive post-error behavioral adjustment when the orienting response resolves before subsequent trial onset. We measured pupil dilation, a prototypical measure of autonomic orienting, during performance of a choice RT task with long inter-stimulus intervals, and found that the trial-by-trial magnitude of the error-evoked pupil response positively predicted both PES magnitude and the likelihood that the following response would be correct. These combined findings suggest that the magnitude of the error-related orienting response predicts an adaptive change of response strategy following errors, and thereby promote a reconciliation of the orienting and adaptive control accounts of PES.