Data from: Landscape permeability and individual variation in a dispersal-linked gene jointly determine genetic structure in the Glanville fritillary butterfly
DiLeo, Michelle F.; Husby, Arild; Saastamoinen, Marjo (2019), Data from: Landscape permeability and individual variation in a dispersal-linked gene jointly determine genetic structure in the Glanville fritillary butterfly, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.mp25s15
There is now clear evidence that species across a broad range of taxa harbour extensive heritable variation in dispersal. While studies suggest that this variation can facilitate demographic outcomes such as range expansion and invasions, few have considered the consequences of intraspecific variation in dispersal for the maintenance and distribution of genetic variation across fragmented landscapes. Here we examine how landscape characteristics and individual variation in dispersal combine to predict genetic structure using genomic and spatial data from the Glanville fritillary butterfly. We used linear and latent factor mixed models to identify the landscape features that best predict spatial sorting of alleles in the dispersal-related gene phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi). We next used structural equation modeling to test if variation in Pgi mediated gene flow as measured by Fst at putatively neutral loci. In a year when the population was expanding following a large decline, individuals with a genotype associated with greater dispersal ability were found at significantly higher frequencies in populations isolated by water and forest, and these populations showed lower levels of genetic differentiation at neutral loci. These relationships disappeared in the next year when metapopulation density was high, suggesting that the effects of individual variation are context dependent. Together our results highlight that 1) more complex aspects of landscape structure beyond just the configuration of habitat can be important for maintaining spatial variation in dispersal traits, and 2) that individual variation in dispersal plays a key role in maintaining genetic variation across fragmented landscapes.