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Data from: Parallel pattern of differentiation at a genomic island shared between clinal and mosaic hybrid zones in a complex of cryptic seahorse lineages

Citation

Riquet, Florentine et al. (2019), Data from: Parallel pattern of differentiation at a genomic island shared between clinal and mosaic hybrid zones in a complex of cryptic seahorse lineages, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.mq122fv

Abstract

Diverging semi-isolated lineages either meet in narrow clinal hybrid zones, or have a mosaic distribution associated with environmental variation. Intrinsic reproductive isolation is often emphasized in the former and local adaptation in the latter, although both can contribute to isolation. Rarely these two patterns of spatial distribution are reported in the same study system. Here we report that the long-snouted seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus is subdivided into discrete panmictic entities by both types of hybrid zones. Along the European Atlantic coasts, a northern and a southern lineage meet in the southwest of France where they coexist in sympatry with little hybridization. In the Mediterranean Sea, two lineages have a mosaic distribution, associated with lagoon-like and marine habitats. A fifth lineage was identified in the Black Sea. Genetic homogeneity over large spatial scales contrasts with isolation maintained in sympatry or close parapatry at a fine scale. A high variation in locus-specific introgression rates provides additional evidence that partial reproductive isolation must be maintaining the divergence. Surprisingly, fixed differences between lagoon and marine populations in the Mediterranean Sea belong to the most differentiated SNPs between the two Atlantic lineages, against the genome-wide pattern of structure. These parallel outlier SNPs cluster on a single chromosome-wide island of differentiation. Since Atlantic lineages do not match the lagoon-sea habitat variation, genetic parallelism at the genomic island suggests a shared genetic barrier contributes to reproductive isolation in contrasting contexts -i.e. spatial vs. ecological. We discuss how a genomic hotspot of parallel differentiation could have evolved and become associated either with space or with a patchy environment in a single study system. Recommended in Yaniv Brandvain (2018) Genomic parallelism in adaptation to orthogonal environments in sea horses. Peer Community in Evolutionary Biology, 100056. doi:10.24072/pci.evolbiol.100056

Usage Notes

Location

Mediterranean coasts
Chanel coasts
European Atlantic coasts