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Risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adults with type 1 diabetes: findings from prospective real-life T1D exchange registry

Citation

Foster, Nicole et al. (2020), Risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adults with type 1 diabetes: findings from prospective real-life T1D exchange registry, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.msbcc2fv9

Abstract

Context

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality in adults with type 1 diabetes.

Objective

We prospectively evaluated CVD risk factors in a large, contemporary cohort of adults with type 1 diabetes living in the United States.

Design

Observational study of CVD and CVD risk factors over a median of 5.3 years.

Setting

The T1D Exchange clinic network.

Patients

Adults (age ≥18 years) with type 1 diabetes and without known CVD diagnosed before or at enrollment.

Main Outcome Measure

Associations between CVD risk factors and incident CVD were assessed by multivariable logistic regression.

Results

The study included 8,727 participants (53% female, 88% non-Hispanic white, median age 33 years [IQR=21, 48], type 1 diabetes duration 16 years [IQR=9, 26]). At enrollment, median HbA1c was 7.6% (66 mmol/mol) [IQR=6.9 (52), 8.6 (70)], 33% used a statin, and 37% used blood pressure medication. Over a mean follow-up of 4.6 years, 325 (3.7%) participants developed incident CVD. Ischemic heart disease was the most common CVD event. Increasing age, BMI, HbA1c, presence of hypertension and dyslipidemia, increasing duration of diabetes, and diabetic nephropathy were associated with increased risk for CVD. There were no significant gender differences in CVD risk.

Conclusion

HbA1c, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetic nephropathy are important risk factors for CVD in adults with type 1 diabetes. A longer follow-up is likely required to assess the impact of other traditional CVD risk factors on incident CVD in the current era.

Funding

Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust

National Institutes of Health