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Survey Data of the socio-demographic, economic and water source types that influences HHs drinking water supply

Cite this dataset

Gebremichael, Shewayiref Geremew (2021). Survey Data of the socio-demographic, economic and water source types that influences HHs drinking water supply [Dataset]. Dryad.


Background: Clean water is an essential part of human healthy life and wellbeing. More recently, rapid population growth, high illiteracy rate, lack of sustainable development, and climate change; faces a global challenge in developing countries. The discontinuity of drinking water supply forces households either to use unsafe water storage materials or to use water from unsafe sources. The present study aimed to identify the determinants of water source types, use, quality of water, and sanitation perception of physical parameters among urban households in North-West Ethiopia.

Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among households from February to March 2019. An interview-based a pretested and structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data collection samples were selected randomly and proportional to each of the kebeles’ households. MS Excel and R Version 3.6.2 were used to enter and analyze the data; respectively. Descriptive statistics using frequencies and percentages were used to explain the sample data concerning the predictor variable. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess the association between independent and response variables.

Results: Four hundred eighteen (418) households have participated. Based on the study undertaken,78.95% of households used improved and 21.05% of households used unimproved drinking water sources. Households drinking water sources were significantly associated with the age of the participant (x2 = 20.392, df=3), educational status(x2 = 19.358, df=4), source of income (x2 = 21.777, df=3), monthly income (x2 = 13.322, df=3), availability of additional facilities (x2 = 98.144, df=7), cleanness status (x2 =42.979, df=4), scarcity of water (x2 = 5.1388, df=1) and family size (x2 = 9.934, df=2). The logistic regression analysis also indicated that those factors are significantly determining the water source types used by the households. Factors such as availability of toilet facility, household member type, and sex of the head of the household were not significantly associated with drinking water sources.

Conclusion: The uses of drinking water from improved sources were determined by different demographic, socio-economic, sanitation, and hygiene-related factors. Therefore, ; the local, regional, and national governments and other supporting organizations shall improve the accessibility and adequacy of drinking water from improved sources in the area.



    1. Study Design, Area and Period

A community-based cross-sectional study design was conducted from February to March2019. The study was conducted in Debre Tabor District, which is situated in North-West Ethiopia. Based on the district official report, the population of the town is expected to be 87,627 (2019 projected population). From this population a number of 49,535 households members are users of tap water in 2019, but the remaining 38,092 household members are not tapped, water users. Drinking water of the town comes from large reservoirs located in its surroundings, Farta Woreda, which is one of the administrative Woredas in the South Gondar Zonal Administration. In the district, there are a lot of wells, which were extracted to supplement the domestic water requirement in town. 

Sample Size Determination

The town has about 17,526 households. The studied part of the population is made up of families that reside in the town, which comprise men, women, and children, all of which are in different age groups. The average family size of the town was computed asabout4.53 per household (after a pilot survey was conducted in January 2019).

For the household survey, samples were selected using the sample size determination equation of Cochran (1977). The study used a single proportion formula, 95% confidence interval, the marginal error of 5%, and the non-response rate of 10%;


Z = 95% confidence limit (z-value at α=0.05 is 1.96); N = Number of households in Debre Tabor town =17526; p=0.5; 1-p=0.5; D=Marginal error or degree of accuracy=0.05; n=380+38=418.

Total sample size=418. However, a sample size of 418 was used to eliminate any errors. The town has 6 kebeles (wards). The samples were selected randomly and taken proportionally from each kebeles and sub-kebeles.

  1. Sampling Method and Sampling Procedure

All households living in the study area at the time of data collection were included as the study population. Data collection sites were demarcated into 6 kebeles. The samples were selected randomly using a proportional allocation from each kebeles (wards) and sub-kebeles (sub-wards).

  1. Data Collection Tools and Techniques

The primary source of data was employed. The primary data gathering was including, household survey questionnaires (on paper) and personal observation. The content of the questionnaire was checked by public health professionals, who have had a profound experience in the area. The method of data collection was by investigator administered questionnaire. The investigators/researchers (people who speak the Amharic language) administered a questionnaire to participants regardless of their educational level. Seven data collectors were selected for data collection and two supervisors were assigned.

The questionnaire consisted of five sections namely; section I: sociodemographic data, section II: Sources of income, section III: water source observation, section IV: household water use and section V: Water quality and sanitation perception. There were key informant interviews and verification of the facilities using a checklist.

A detailed questionnaire was prepared in the native language of the households (Amharic) and included over 50 questions. A multiple-choice format was used to answer the majority of the questions. House-hold characteristics, such as the number of family size, educational level, monthly income of the household, type of occupation, sources of water, sanitation and hygiene, and awareness about household drinking water were included.


Usage notes

If someone wants to use the dataset, he/she can contact the corresponding author.