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Data from: A diversification relay race from Caribbean-Mesoamerica to the Andes: historical biogeography of Xylophanes hawkmoths

Citation

Li, Xuankun et al. (2022), Data from: A diversification relay race from Caribbean-Mesoamerica to the Andes: historical biogeography of Xylophanes hawkmoths, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.mw6m905xp

Abstract

The regions of the Andes and Caribbean-Mesoamerica are both hypothesized to be the cradle for many Neotropical lineages, but few studies have fully investigated the dynamics and interactions between Neotropical bioregions. The NewWorld hawkmoth genus Xylophanes is the most taxonomically diverse genus in the Sphingidae, with the highest endemism and richness in the Andes and Caribbean-Mesoamerica. We integrated phylogenomic and DNA barcode data and generated the first time-calibrated tree for this genus, covering 93.8% of the species diversity. We used event-based likelihood ancestral area estimation and biogeographic stochastic mapping to examine the speciation and dispersal dynamics of Xylophanes across bioregions. We also used trait-dependent diversification models to compare speciation and extinction rates of lineages associated with different bioregions. Our results indicate that Xylophanes originated in Caribbean-Mesoamerica in the Late Miocene, and immediately diverged into five major clades. The current species diversity and distribution of Xylophanes can be explained by two consecutive phases. In the first phase, the highest Xylophanes speciation and emigration rates occurred in the Caribbean-Mesoamerica, and the highest immigration rates occurred in the Andes, whereas in the second phase the highest immigration rates were found in Amazonia, and the Andes had the highest speciation and emigration rates.