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Temperature database for calculating the magnitudes and rates of temperature change during the Phanerozoic

Citation

Song, Haijun (2020), Temperature database for calculating the magnitudes and rates of temperature change during the Phanerozoic, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.n8pk0p2s4

Abstract

The temperature database is used for calculating the magnitudes and rates of climate change in 47 time intervals from early Ordovician (478 Ma) to early Miocene (16 Ma). This database is composed of the most significant warming/cooling events over the past 480 million years and consists of original proxy data, calculated temperature data, locations, geologic age, time span, and relevant references. Paleotemperatures of surface seawater were calculated from multiple proxies such as oxygen isotope from carbonate and apatite fossils (δ18O), carbonate clumped isotope (Δ47), and organic geochemical proxy (TEX86).

Methods

Oxygen isotopic values from calcite fossils (i.e., belemnite, oyster, and plankton foraminifer) are converted to surface seawater temperature (SST) using the equation of Hays and Grossman (1991):

where δ18OCalcite is the oxygen isotope composition of calcite fossils, δ18OSW is the O isotope composition of seawater. SSTs are calculated from the δ18O values of apatite fossils (conodont) by using the equation of Lécuyer et al. (2013):

where δ18Oconodont is the oxygen isotope composition of conodonts.

References

Hays, P.D., Grossman, E.L., 1991. Oxygen isotopes in meteoric calcite cements as indicators of continental paleoclimate. Geology 19, 441–444.

Lécuyer, C., Amiot, R., Touzeau, A., Trotter, J., 2013. Calibration of the phosphate δ18O thermometer with carbonate–water oxygen isotope fractionation equations. Chem. Geol. 347, 217–226.