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Data from: Integrating the pace-of-life syndrome across species, sexes and individuals: covariation of life history and personality under pesticide exposure

Citation

Debecker, Sara et al. (2017), Data from: Integrating the pace-of-life syndrome across species, sexes and individuals: covariation of life history and personality under pesticide exposure, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.nk3qt

Abstract

The pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) hypothesis integrates covariation of life-history traits along a fast–slow continuum and covariation of behavioural traits along a proactive–reactive personality continuum. Few studies have investigated these predicted life-history/personality associations among species and between sexes. Furthermore, whether and how contaminants interfere with POLS patterns remains unexplored. We tested for covariation patterns in life history and in behaviour, and for life-history/personality covariation among species, among individuals within species and between sexes. Moreover, we investigated whether pesticide exposure affects covariation between life history and behaviour and whether species and sexes with a faster POLS strategy have a higher sensitivity to pesticides. We reared larvae of four species of Ischnura damselflies in a common garden experiment with an insecticide treatment (chlorpyrifos absent/present) in the final instar. We measured four life-history traits (larval growth rate during the pesticide treatment, larval development time, adult mass and life span) and two behavioural traits (larval feeding activity and boldness, each before and after the pesticide treatment). At the individual level, life-history traits and behavioural traits aligned along a fast–slow and a proactive–reactive continuum, respectively. Species-specific differences in life history, with fast-lived species having a faster larval growth and development, a lower mass at emergence and a shorter life span, suggested that time constraints in the larval stage were predictably driving life-history evolution both in the larval stage and across metamorphosis in the adult stage. Across species, females were consistently more slow-lived than males, reflecting that a large body size and a long life span are generally more important for females. In contrast to the POLS hypothesis, there was only little evidence for the expected positive coupling between life-history pace and proactivity. Pesticide exposure decreased larval growth rate and affected life-history/personality covariation in the most fast-lived species. Our study supports the existence of life-history and behavioural continua with limited support for life-history/personality covariation. Variation in digestive physiology may explain this decoupling of life history and behaviour and provide valuable mechanistic insights to understand and predict the occurrence of life-history/personality covariation patterns.

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