Dispersal is well recognised as a major driver of evolutionary processes in local populations. Nevertheless, dispersal abilities should also be perceived as a life history trait, being subject to evolutionary changes in response to various drivers. Empirical studies investigating these drivers rarely consider that they may influence male and female dispersal differently. The purpose of our study was to document intersexual differences in density-dependent emigration from local habitat patches. As a model system we used a metapopulation of Maculinea (Phengaris) teleius butterfly, in which densities of both sexes vary greatly throughout the flying season. Following intensive mark-release-recapture surveys, the parameters and predictors of dispersal were analysed with the Virtual Migration model and the multi-state recapture model. The emigration rate in males was substantially higher in the early season, especially at smaller habitat patches. With the proportion of females increasing with the season progression, males became reluctant to emigrate from their natal patches. In turn, higher female emigration in the later part of the season was most strongly associated with female tendency to reduce intraspecific competition experienced by their offspring. Our findings provide evidence for the impact of reproductive strategies on dispersal in both sexes. The difference in reproductive strategies of males and females explain sex-biased dispersal in different parts of the season, which carries important implications for metapopulation functioning.
Following intensive mark-release-recapture surveys, the parameters and predictors of dispersal were analysed with the Virtual Migration model and the Brownie's multi-state recapture model.
Polish National Science Centre, Award: DEC-2013/11/B/NZ8/00912
Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie, Award: DS/WBINOZ/INOŚ/761