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SNP discovery in Cryptomeria japonica var. sinensis using restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq)

Citation

Cai, Mengying (2020), SNP discovery in Cryptomeria japonica var. sinensis using restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq), Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.nk98sf7rf

Abstract

Our study is the first to explore the genetic composition of ancient Cryptomeria trees across distribution range in China. Background and Objectives: Cryptomeria japonica var. sinensis is a native forest species of China; it is widely planted in the south of the country to create forests and for wood production. Unlike Cryptomeria in Japan, genetic Chinese Cryptomeria has seldom been studied, although there is ample evidence of its great ecological and economic value. Materials and Methods: Because of overcutting, natural populations are rare in the wild. In this study, we investigated seven ancient tree populations to explore the genetic composition of Chinese Cryptomeria through ddRAD-seq technology. Results: The results reveal lower genetic variation but higher genetic differentiation (Ho=0.143, FST=0.1204) than Japanese Cryptomeria (Ho=0.245, FST=0.0455). The 86% within-population variation is based on analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). Significant excess heterozygosity was detected in three populations and some outlier loci were found; these were considered to be the consequence of selection or chance. STRUCTURE analysis and dendrogram construction divided the seven ancient tree populations into four groups corresponding to the geographical provinces in which the populations are located, but there was no obvious correlation between genetic distance and geographic distance. Demographic history analysis conducted by a Stairway Plot showed that the effective population size of Chinese Cryptomeria had experienced a continuing decline from the mid-Pleistocene to the present. Our findings suggest that strong genetic drift caused by climate fluctuation and intense anthropogenic disturbance together contributed to the current low diversity and structure. Considering the species’ unfavorable conservation status, strategies are urgently required to preserve the remaining genetic resources.

Methods

ddRAD library sequenced on Illumina HiSeq X Ten platform.

SNP calling and filtering on dDocent pipeline.

Funding

National Key Research and Development Program of China, Award: 2016YFE0127200

Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Award: JP18H02248

Sumitomo Foundation