Data from: Ontogenetic stage-specific quantitative trait loci contribute to divergence in developmental trajectories of sexually dimorphic fins between medaka populations
Kawajiri, Maiko et al. (2014), Data from: Ontogenetic stage-specific quantitative trait loci contribute to divergence in developmental trajectories of sexually dimorphic fins between medaka populations, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.nq36d
Sexual dimorphism can evolve when males and females differ in phenotypic optima. Genetic constraints can, however, limit the evolution of sexual dimorphism. One possible constraint is derived from alleles expressed in both sexes. Because males and females share most of their genome, shared alleles with different fitness effects between sexes are faced with intralocus sexual conflict. Another potential constraint is derived from genetic correlations between developmental stages. Sexually dimorphic traits are often favoured at adult stages, but selected against as juvenile, so developmental decoupling of traits between ontogenetic stages may be necessary for the evolution of sexual dimorphism in adults. Resolving intralocus conflicts between sexes and ages is therefore a key to the evolution of age-specific expression of sexual dimorphism. We investigated the genetic architecture of divergence in the ontogeny of sexual dimorphism between two populations of the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) that differ in the magnitude of dimorphism in anal and dorsal fin length. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping revealed that few QTL had consistent effects throughout ontogenetic stages and the majority of QTL change the sizes and directions of effects on fin growth rates during ontogeny. We also found that most QTL were sex-specific, suggesting that intralocus sexual conflict is almost resolved. Our results indicate that sex- and age-specific QTL enable the populations to achieve optimal developmental trajectories of sexually dimorphic traits in response to complex natural and sexual selection.