Skip to main content
Dryad logo

Localized environmental heterogeneity drives the population differentiation of two endangered and endemic Opisthopappus Shih species

Citation

Ye, Hang et al. (2021), Localized environmental heterogeneity drives the population differentiation of two endangered and endemic Opisthopappus Shih species, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.p5hqbzkpd

Abstract

Background: Climate heterogeneity not only indirectly shapes the genetic structures of plant populations, but also drives adaptive divergence by impacting demographic dynamics. The variable localized climates and topographic complexity of the Taihang Mountains make them a major natural boundary in Northern China that influences the divergence of organisms distributed across this region. Opisthopappus is an endemic genus of the Taihang Mountains that includes only two spatially partitioned species Opisthopappus longilobus and Opisthopappus taihangensis. For this study, the mechanisms behind the genetic variations in Opisthopappus populations were investigated.

Results: Using SNP and InDel data coupled with geographic and climatic information, significant genetic differentiation was found to exist either between Opisthopappus populations or two species. All studied populations were divided into two genetic groups with the differentiation of haplotypes between the groups. At approximately 17.44 Ma of the early Miocene, O. taihangensis differentiated from O. longilobus under differing precipitation regimes due to the intensification of the Asian monsoon. Subsequently, intraspecific divergence might be induced by the dramatic climatic transformation from the mid- to late Miocene. During the Pleistocene period, the rapid uplift of the Taihang Mountains coupled with violent climatic oscillations would further promote the diversity of the two species. Following the development of the Taihang Mountains, its complex topography created geographical and ecological heterogeneity, which could lead to spatiotemporal isolation between the Opisthopappus populations. Thus the adaptive divergence might occur within these intraspecific populations in the localized heterogeneous environment of the Taihang Mountains.

Conclusions: The localized environmental events through the integration of small-scale spatial effects impacted the demographic history and differentiation mechanism of Opisthopappus species in the Taihang Mountains. The results provide useful information for us to understand the ecology and evolution of organisms in the mountainous environment from population and species perspective.

Methods

Our study was conducted in accordance with the laws of the People's Republic of China, and field collection was approved by the Chinese Government. Subsequently, the total genomic DNA was extracted by using the modified 2 × CTAB method across 23 populations including 11 populations of O. longilobus and 13 populations of O. taihangensis. The primer source and PCR procedure proceeded as described detailedly in manuscript. After sequences alignment, 120 concatenating sequences generated 75 haplotypes. The total length of the haplotype was 1921 bp, which contained 1870 monomorphic sites and 51 polymorphic sites. Therein, we would upload the haplotype datasets, including the total number of sites (1921 bp) and the polymorphic sites (51 bp) for data sharing.

Funding

National Natural Science Foundation of China, Award: 31970358

Research Project Supported by Shanxi Scholarship Council of China, Award: 2020-090

Research Project Supported by Shanxi Scholarship Council of China, Award: 2020-090