Data from: Evolution of conjugation and type IV secretion systems
Guglielmini, Julien; de la Cruz, Fernando; Rocha, Eduardo P. C. (2013), Data from: Evolution of conjugation and type IV secretion systems, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.p8b82
Genetic exchange by conjugation is responsible for the spread of resistance, virulence and social traits among prokaryotes. Recent works unraveled the functioning of the underlying type IV secretion systems (T4SS), its distribution and its recruitment for other biological processes (exaptation), notably pathogenesis. We analyzed the phylogeny of key conjugation proteins to infer the evolutionary history of conjugation and T4SS. We show that ssDNA and dsDNA conjugation, while both based on a key AAA+ ATPase, diverged before the last common ancestor of bacteria. The two key ATPases of ssDNA conjugation are monophyletic, having diverged at an early stage from dsDNA translocases. Our data suggests that ssDNA conjugation arose first in diderm bacteria, possibly Proteobacteria, and then spread to other bacterial phyla, including bacterial monoderms and Archaea. Identifiable T4SS fall within 8 monophyletic groups, determined by both taxonomy and the structure of the cell envelope. Transfer to monoderms might have occurred only once, but followed diverse adaptive paths. Remarkably, some Firmicutes developed a new conjugation system based on an atypical relaxase and an ATPase derived from a dsDNA translocase. The observed evolutionary rates and patterns of presence/absence of specific T4SS proteins show that conjugation systems are often and independently exapted for other functions. This work brings a natural basis for the classification of all kinds of conjugative systems, thus tackling a problem that is growing as fast as genomic databases. Our analysis provides the first global picture of the evolution of conjugation and shows how a self-transferrable complex multi-protein system has adapted to different taxa and often been recruited by the host. As conjugation systems became specific to certain clades and cell envelopes, they may have biased the rate and direction of gene transfer by conjugation within prokaryotes.