Data from: Small-scale intraspecific patterns of adaptive immunogenetic polymorphisms and neutral variation in Lake Superior lake trout
Baillie, Shauna M. et al. (2018), Data from: Small-scale intraspecific patterns of adaptive immunogenetic polymorphisms and neutral variation in Lake Superior lake trout, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.pg034
Many fishes express high levels of intraspecific variability, often linked to resource partitioning. Several studies show that a species’ evolutionary trajectory of adaptive divergence can undergo reversals caused by changes in its environment. Such a reversal in neutral genetic and morphological variation among lake trout Salvelinus namaycush ecomorphs appears to be underway in Lake Superior. However, a water depth gradient in neutral genetic divergence was found to be associated with intraspecific diversity in the lake. To investigate patterns of adaptive immunogenetic variation among lake trout ecomorphs, we used Illumina high-throughput sequencing. The population’s genetic structure of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC Class IIβ exon 2) and 18 microsatellite loci were compared to disentangle neutral and selective processes at a small geographic scale. Both MHC and microsatellite variation were partitioned more by water depth stratum than by ecomorph. Several metrics showed strong clustering by water depth in MHC alleles, but not microsatellites. We report a 75% increase in the number of MHC alleles shared between the predominant shallow and deep water ecomorphs since a previous lake trout MHC study at the same locale (c. 1990s data). This result is consistent with the reverse speciation hypothesis, although adaptive MHC polymorphisms persist along an ecological gradient. Finally, results suggested that the lake trout have multiple copies of the MHC II locus consistent with a historic genomic duplication event. Our findings indicated that conservation approaches for this species could focus on managing various ecological habitats by depth, in addition to regulating the fisheries specific to ecomorphs.