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Genetic diversity and connectivity of southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) found in the Brazil and Chile–Peru wintering grounds and the South Georgia (Islas Georgias del Sur) feeding ground

Citation

Carroll, Emma L et al. (2020), Genetic diversity and connectivity of southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) found in the Brazil and Chile–Peru wintering grounds and the South Georgia (Islas Georgias del Sur) feeding ground, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.pg4f4qrk8

Abstract

As species recover from exploitation, continued assessments of connectivity and population structure are warranted to provide information for conservation and management. This is particularly true in species with high dispersal capacity, such as migratory whales, where patterns of connectivity could change rapidly. Here we build on a previous long-term, large-scale collaboration on southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) to combine new (nnew) and published (npub) mitochondrial (mtDNA) and microsatellite genetic data from all major wintering grounds and, uniquely, the South Georgia (Islas Georgias del Sur: SG) feeding grounds. Specifically, we include data from Argentina (npub mtDNA/microsatellite = 208/46), Brazil (nnew mtDNA/microsatellite = 50/50), South Africa (nnew mtDNA/microsatellite = 66/77, npub mtDNA/microsatellite = 350/47), Chile–Peru (nnew mtDNA/microsatellite = 1/1), the Indo-Pacific (npub mtDNA/microsatellite = 769/126), and SG (npub mtDNA/microsatellite = 8/0, nnew mtDNA/microsatellite = 3/11) to investigate the position of previously unstudied habitats in the migratory network: Brazil, SG, and Chile–Peru. These new genetic data show connectivity between Brazil and Argentina, exemplified by weak genetic differentiation and the movement of 1 genetically identified individual between the South American grounds. The single sample from Chile–Peru had an mtDNA haplotype previously only observed in the Indo-Pacific and had a nuclear genotype that appeared admixed between the Indo-Pacific and South Atlantic, based on genetic clustering and assignment algorithms. The SG samples were clearly South Atlantic and were more similar to the South American than the South African wintering grounds. This study highlights how international collaborations are critical to provide context for emerging or recovering regions, like the SG feeding ground, as well as those that remain critically endangered, such as Chile–Peru.

Methods

Collection and laboratory methods described in publication. Data archived here described as follows.

1. Microsatellite data

The repository contains microsatellite genotypes for all samples used in the analysis in genepop format: SRW_All_Data_SamplingLocationGenepop.txt

 

The order of populations in this file is as follows:


South Africa (n = 123)

Argentina (n = 46)

Brazil (n = 50)

South Georgia (n = 11)

Chile (n = 1)

Australia (n = 78)

New Zealand (n = 51)

 

As per Table 1 in the original manuscript.

 

2. Mitochondrial DNA data

This repository contains the mtDNA data in two formats:

(1) excel spreadsheet with haplotype names, genbank accession numbers, references and accession numbers, with count of each haplotype per sampling location: Dryad_mtDNA_Hap_Frequencies.xlsx

(2) Arlequin file linking haplotype counts and sequences in one file: 380bp_SGSRW_SouthAtlantic_Aug19.txt

 

Usage Notes

The Indo-Pacific (Australia/New Zealand) dataset comes from original publication Carroll et al 2015

The Argentina and part of the South Africna dataset comes from original publication Carroll et al 2019

Funding

EU BEST 2.0, Award: Medium grant 1594

UK DARWIN DPLUS, Award: Grant 057

World Wildlife Fund, Award: GB107301

Global Greengrants Fund

Brazilian National Research Council, Award: 144064/98-7 and 146609/1999-9

World Wildlife Fund - Brazil

Grantová Agentura, Univerzita Karlova, Award: 1140217

Royal Society of New Zealand, Award: Rutherford Discovery Fellowship

Univerzita Karlova v Praze, Award: 1140217

Natural Environment Research Council

Pacific Whale Foundation

Brazilian National Research Council, Award: n° 144064/98-7

Brazilian National Research Council, Award: n° 146609/1999-9

EU BEST 2.0, Award: Medium grant 1594

UK DARWIN DPLUS, Award: Grant 057

Global Greengrants Fund

World Wildlife Fund - Brazil